What Did the People Put in the Mummies' Tombs in Ancient Egypt?
Ancient Egyptians were dedicated to the afterlife. This was perhaps because their mortal lives were relatively short very few Egyptians lived to beyond 40 years old. Mummifying their dead was a way to preserve and prepare them for the afterlife. Items that might be useful in the afterlife were also customarily buried with the dead including everyday objects, foods, beverages, jewelry, pets and servants.
Explore this article
A lot of improvement happened during the period of the Old Kingdom between 2600 BC and 2000 BC. During this time there was progress in the development of ancient Egyptian words and meanings. Pyramid texts revealed lines and lines of hieroglyphics.
Elite Egyptians inscribed their tomb walls with numerous sayings. Temples had this too. Such various ways of inscribing words on different surfaces developed the language. Tombs had short autobiographies of the deceased. Temples had philosophical sayings.
Ideograms were tripled, as were phonograms to pluralize words. This was also an important development in the language of ancient Egyptians.
2. Senet Game
An ancient version of a board game was called Senet, or “passing”. It symbolized the passage from life to death and had been played in Egypt for about 1800 years by the time the young king died. The game was played in every stratum of society and although the rule books have long been lost, experts believe they know how the game might have been played.
Facts about Canyons 7: Kali Gandaki Gorge
Other people call Kali Gandaki Gorge as the deepest canyon for it has the depth at 21,000 feet or 6,400 meter. The location of this canyon is in Midwest Nepal.
Facts about Canyons 8: the deepest canyon in Americas
The Cotahuasi Canyon and Colca Canyon are considered as the deepest canyons in Americas. The depth of both canyons is around 12,000 feet or 3,500 meter.
6. Crew lists and agreements 1845-1856
6.1 Types of crew list for this period
From 1845 onwards the following lists were being used:
Schedules C and D
See section 5.
In addition, the following types of list were introduced:
Agreements for &lsquoForeign Going&rsquo or &lsquoForeign Trade&rsquo ships (Schedule A)
Commonly called &lsquoArticles&rsquo, these agreements were between master and crew, and had to be filed within 24 hours of the ship&rsquos return to a UK port.
Agreements for &lsquoHome Trade Ships&rsquo (Schedule B)
Again, these agreements were between master and crew and covered coastal and fishing ships. The forms had to be filed within 30 days of the end of June or December.
Names and Register Tickets of Crew (Foreign Trade) (Schedule G)
A list of the crew, with their Register Ticket numbers, to be filed for a foreign-going ship on sailing.
6.2 How to find crew lists 1845-1856
To locate crew lists for these years you will need to know the name of the ship on which an individual seaman sailed. This is not given in the registers of seamen&rsquos service until 1854. A search on our catalogue of all the available crew lists is only practical for small ports.
Crew lists for this period are in BT 98.
Use the search box contained within BT 98 to search by year and name of ship&rsquos port of registry. Any search results will be divided into alphabetical ranges according to the initial letter of the ship&rsquos name.
Alternatively, browse BT 98/564-4758 to view all the ports covered for this period and the alphabetical ranges of ships for each port.
What are the 8 steps of mummification process?
1. Purify the body
Before the embalming process can begin, the body is washed in water from the Nile and palm wine.
2. Remove the internal organs
A small incision is made in the left side of the body and the liver, lungs, intestines and stomach are removed. They are then washed and packed in natron before being placed in canopic jars.
The heart is left in the body as it is believed to be the center of intelligence, and will be needed in the afterlife.
3. Discard the brain
A rod is inserted through the nostril into the skull and used to break apart the brain so that it can drain out of the nose.
The liquid is then thrown away as it is not thought to be useful.
4. Leave to dry
The body is stuffed and covered with natron, a type of salt, which will absorb any moisture. It is then left for 40 days to dry out.
5. Stuff the body
Once again, it is washed in water from the Nile and covered with oils to help the skin stay elastic.
The natron is scooped out and the body is then stuffed with sawdust and linen to make it look lifelike.
6. Wrap in linen
First, the head and neck are wrapped in strips of linen, then the fingers and toes.
The arms and legs are wrapped separately before being tied together. Liquid resin is used as glue.
7. Add amulets
Charms called amulets are placed in between the layers to protect the body during its journey to the afterlife.
8. Say a prayer
A priest reads spells out loud while the body is being wrapped in order to ward off evil spirits.
He will often wear a mask of Anubis – the god associated with the embalming process and the afterlife.
SEEING THE UNSEEN
Ground-penetrating radar, a remote-sensing technique commonly used in prospecting for oil and gas and other minerals, is an increasingly critical tool for archaeologists. It enables them to detect man-made voids in the earth, such as tombs and passages, without unnecessarily disturbing fragile ancient sites.
In 2015, radar specialist Hirokatsu Watanabe conducted a GPR scan of Tut’s tomb and announced startling results: evidence for hidden doorways on the north and west walls of the burial chamber.
However, a second radar scan of the tomb, performed by National Geographic Society engineers in 2016, did not replicate Watanabe's results.
Following a contentious discussion over the discrepancy between the results of the two scans at the 2016 International Tutankhamun GEM Conference, Minister El Enany commissioned a comprehensive "tie-breaker" radar analysis.
When you think of Henry VIII, you probably picture Dom DeLuise in a dress. It's a fair picture.
Turkey drumstick in one hand, lady parts in the other -- that's how we like our H8. But Henry didn't start out as a house-shaped humping machine. Before he lost the battle with tautness, Henry was as athletic and handsome as an NBA pool party. He wasn't just a monarch sitting on a throne he ruled jousting tournaments and tennis courts and won Mr. Sexy Legs of 1525. Yet none of those endeavors explain this incredible . thing:
Sometime around 1511, the Holy Roman Emperor commissioned master armor craftsman Konrad Seusenhofer to create this steampunk amalgamation of fear and awesome as a gift for young King Henry. This is real. You are not dreaming. King Henry VIII once wore the mask above in all seriousness, probably at court pageants and as a way to shock a male heir out of his wife's womb. It eventually worked. Probably because of those baby tombstones posing as teeth.
Imagine if you came across a guy whose smile revealed a tiny privacy fence where his teeth should be. Nothing is in its natural toothlike position, all the teeth have a Bobby Brownish gap between them, and they're uniformly distributed across a mouth that looks like it's been pinned open by invisible fat aunts on each side. That's who modeled for this mask. Or even worse, the artist was a blind man who never actually saw a real person in his life -- this is the closest facsimile to "human" he could come up with. Kind of like whoever made Lionel Richie's head in "Hello."
If you're not looking at the Chiclet teeth or the dookie horns, you're looking at those yellow glasses. Historians think that Henry was actually nearsighted, a theory supplemented by the fact that there were dozens of glasses in his possession after his death. Which leaves us with a very important question: What if these glasses are totally serious? What if the glasses are the one thing that actually looks like it belongs to Henry? It kind of changes everything.
Just looking at the mask, you're so overwhelmed by its audacity that it's hard to see the workmanship involved. The joints allowed for the visor to be removed, so experts think that there were multiple faces that could be attached. Maybe one of the other visors was a Groucho mask or a frowny face for when Henry was feeling serious. Or maybe they cut right to the chase and made it Flavor Flav.
Canopic Box Of Nesaarud - History
White Star Line / Oceanic Steamship Company / White Star Line of Boston Packets
Founded 1845 and started sailing ship voyages the following year with chartered brig ELIZABETH to Montreal. Purchased their first ship in 1849 - barque IOWA and advertised as the 'White Star Line of Boston Packets'. Commenced steamship sailings 1863. Went into liquidation in 1868 and bought out by Thomas Ismay who formed the Oceanic Steam Nav.Co. in 1869 (known thereafter as the White Star Line). 1926 Oceanic SN Co. taken over by Royal Mail SP Co., 1934 Royal Mail Group collapsed and White Star and Cunard SS Co formed Cunard-White Star Ltd. 1947 Cunard purchased the remainder of Cunard-White Star stock and in 1949 took over all activities but the two remaining White Star ships, GEORGIC and BRITANNIC continued sailing in White Star Line colours until they were scrapped in 1956 and 1960 when the White Star name finally disappeared.
The company sailed from Liverpool via Queenstown to New York. Later, they started sailing through the Suez Canal to Bombay, Calcutta, Hong Kong and Sydney. White Star also sailed to Japan and China. The sailing time by the fast vessels in the fleet was under 6 days Liverpool to New York. The line also sailed monthly to New Zealand and monthly from San Francisco to Japan and China. The Oceanic , in 1889, made the voyage to Yokohama from San Francisco in 13 days, 14 hours, 4 minutes.
Many thanks to Ted Finch for his assistance in collecting this data. The following list was extracted from various sources. This is not an all inclusive list but should only be used as a guide. If you would like to know more about a vessel, visit TheShipsList Ship Descriptions or the Immigrant Ship web site.
- 1872-1960 Liverpool - New York (later with calls at Queenstown (Cobh))
- 1872-1960 Liverpool - Boston / Philadelphia
- 1899-1934 Liverpool - Melbourne - Sydney via the Cape
- 1883-1926 Liverpool - New Zealand via the Cape.
- 1872-1873 Liverpool - Valparaiso via Cape Horn.
- 1872-1873 Liverpool - Suez - Calcutta
- 1875-1883 San Francisco - Yokohama - Hong Kong.
- 1903-1909 New York - Azores - Gibraltar - Naples - Genoa.
- 1907-1934 Southampton - Cherbourg - New York.
- 1909-1939 Liverpool - Belfast / Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal.
- 1922-1926 Hamburg / Bremen - Quebec - Montreal
- 1928-1930 London - Havre - Southampton - Quebec - Montreal.
Buff with black top.
Charts of Ships period of service Many thanks to Dan Richard for providing the charts