History Podcasts

Weakiness of confederation - History

Weakiness of confederation - History

Powers of the Confederation

1) Declaring War
2) Raising an Army and Navy
3) Making Treaties
4) Borrowing Money
5) Establishing a Postal System
6)Conducting Business with Native Americans and other powers

Powers that the Confederation Did Not Have

No authority of individual citizens
No means of enforcing laws
No court system
No ability to tax
Dependent on States to send money


American History

After the Declaration of Independence, America was face with the challenges of dealing with Britain and establishing a strong army for defense. The Articles of Confederation were a quick fix to address these challenges.

1A Despite playing a key role in laying the foundation for a future constitution, the Articles of the Confederation had the following weaknesses

It did not provide for an executive branch to enforce laws. The article created a loose and weak central government, with no powers to decide national matters. The president of the union was not a specific individual, but whoever happened to be the presiding officer during congressional m meetings. After the revolution, all the 13 independent states had sovereign powers which limited the central governments influence. The judicial system was also weak, since each state had its own courts to decide internal matters. The central government could not intervene even in matters whose effects could spill into the national sphere. Similarly, the central government had no powers to control inter-state trade, which resulted in states levying tariffs on goods across state borders.

The article gave each state one vote in the chamber regardless their population. This had the negative effects of small states blocking the interests of bigger states. In the end, the interests of a minority group overcame those of the majority. In the levying of taxes, for instance, the states had the sole powers of collecting and then remitting to the national treasury. However, most states often failed to pay and there was nothing the other states or the central government could do. This portended planning problems in regard to provision of services and running of the central governments affairs. Similarly, major bills could not be passed without nine of the thirteen seats, and yet all not all states were represented at any given time.

1B Nonetheless, the Articles made some achievements in relation to the challenges of the time. First, it gave the continental congress powers over the military, foreign affairs, creating and running a postal service as well as regulating the currency. These were sensitive issues that could have raise conflicts if they were to be left to individual states. At the time, American was still under military threat from Britain, and so she needed a well coordinated body to foresee her military provisions. Trade across the states could have been hampered if each was to coin its own currency. And lastly, dealing with foreign states could have been difficult if each state came up with its own foreign policies.

1C The most significant achievement of the confederation was laying the foundation for a national government. However, it failed significantly in its lack of a national justice system.

2A The implementation of the federal system recognized the unique interests of individual states. Thus, each state was afforded some autonomy. At the same time, there was need to ensure cohesion and avoid inter-state conflicts, as well as protect the nation against external aggression. For these reasons, a central government with executive branches was instituted. The central government had the powers to intervene in matters of national interest.

I think the compromise of power between Congress and the Executive on the one hand and between State and Central government on the other was the best thing that ever happened to America at the Philadelphia Convention. It was a perfect balance that avoided abuse of power by any one office.
James Madison defined a faction as any group or groups of individuals with a common interest. For instance, the groups opposing each other over the Health Bill could be said to be different factions. Factions emerged due to the differences among people which created conflicting interests. Madison argued that factions were undesirable since they could easily form a majority and force their way even if at the expense of others, who collectively forms a majority, but nonetheless a minority since they dont have a common interest. To avoid the negative effects of factions, Madison suggested a federal government, in which each state had the autonomy to serve its own interests. However, a central government should be in place to ensure fairness in the distribution of national resources and civil justice.

2B About issues of overbearing majority, Madison contended that if the majority were left to run the show, they will easily violate the rights of others. He discussed these issues in the federalist papers 10 and 51. He differed with a democracy which gave absolute powers to the states. He argued against it since this weakened the central government and exposed minority groups to the mercies of majority factions. In fact, Madisons main concern was to avoid the dangers posed by the emergence of factions. Absolute democracy provided grounds for the establishment of such factions. At the same time, he recognized the right to liberty in the Declaration of Independence. Thus, the federalist model aimed to respect that provision but also protect minority groups against the excesses of overbearing majorities.

2C Specifically, the federalist papers touched on the question of liberty and happiness in independent America, i.e. the influence that individual citizens had in matters of governance, over their lives and by extension, how far they can go in pursuing happiness. It also limits the powers of individual states, which Madison feared would make a faction under a democracy. A full democracy gave absolute powers and autonomy to the peoplestates, limiting the influence of the central government over them. It seems that the democratic approach intended to exercise the right to liberty to the last letter.

Accordingly, the two federalist papers favored a collective republican government in which a central authority determines key policies, as opposed to absolute democracy delegated to individual states. In a sense, this move is interpreted as denying the people the right to govern themselves and seek self satisfaction somewhat in contravention of the principles of the declaration of independence viz. the right to liberty and happiness, and the right to oppose any form of government that violates these rights. However, the federalist papers 10 and 51 give provisions within which the stated rights are protected. In this regard, this essay seeks to argue that the public plan as explained in these papers is consistent with the sentiments of the declaration of independence.

Even the minority have got the right to liberty and happiness. The plan intended to avoid the dangers posed by majority groups in the name of democracy. In any human society with peoples of diverse backgrounds and interests, it is possible for conflicts to arise. In a small independent state, a few individuals will form majority and within the context of absolute democracy, effect changes which serves self interests. The republican plan avoids such an occurrence by ensuring justice and equality to all groups. Imagine what would happen if all the gays in America were to rise and call for constitutional changes which recognized only gay marriages. However, the republican system affords them their rights without necessarily violating those of others. Where will other religious groups go if majority Christians were to gang up and change the constitution in their favor Choices must be made, not necessarily of a perfect good, but for the greater good of all people.

The republican plan fulfills the political philosophy of the declaration of independence by guarding against minority tyranny. In a small autonomous state, it is possible for a minority group to control the instruments of power and oppress the rest of the population. Rwanda was such a state, where only two groups of people (tribes) competed for resources. When one group dominated the other and consolidated all the state apparatus in their hands, the result was a genocide that wiped out millions of the minority group. That will never happen in America, since the minorities are individual groups who collectively make a formidable force against any homogenous majority. To illustrate this, let us consider the numerous religions in America. Christians on the one hand are by far the dominant group. However, they will not undermine a combined force of Muslims, Hindus Buddhists etc. In the context of governance, the minority groups in the various states are protected within the umbrella of the federal government. It is in so doing, .i.e. by bringing together diverse groups, that the republican plan protects both the minority and majority groups. In the face of the rest, even those who will pass as the majority in smaller contexts become a minority, who will not oppress others in the guise of liberty and happiness.

The federalists had the wisdom of understanding that pure homogeneity in terms of ideas is not achievable in a human society. Not even when it is a brilliant presidential dream from the White House, like a health policy for all Americans. Were it that it was the pursuit of happiness no matter what, that a health policy was the sought happiness, and that the right to liberty alone provided sufficient grounds, then the same liberty and happiness would have been denied those who felt disadvantaged by the policy. What the republican plan did, therefore, was to avoid the loopholes in the declaration that a section of society would have exploited to affect the quest for self interests at the expense of other people. That the plan made it an unworkable venture is testimony of its commitment to achieve liberty and happiness to all citizens.

And lastly, the provisions of federalist paper 51 ensured equality and justice to all, while recognizing the peoples sovereignty. The plan advocates for a system with decentralized power, equally vested in the three arms of government namely the presidency, the legislature and the judiciary. The peoples participation in matters of governance is achieved through democratic elections in which they are represented by popular leaders to the two first offices. To guard against concentration of power into the hands of minority groups, the three offices are vested with equal powers to counter check each other. In so doing, citizens are assured of accountable and fair representation.


Articles Of Confederation Strengths And Weaknesses History Essay

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of AUEssays.com.

The Articles of Confederation can be referred to as the first ‘constitution’ of the United States and set out how the Federal government was to run, including implementation of United States of America, as a certified name for the new nation. The Articles were in exercise start starting 1777 following the Second Continental Congress appointment a committee to outline the Articles in June 1776 and prepared the draft to the states for endorsement in November 1777. The Articles was produced by the legislative body of the states which participated in the Second Continental Congress from a perceived call to have “an understanding with confederacy for securing the independence, sovereignty, and freedom of the United States” (Bailyn) The document enclosed 13 articles. It establishes that the confederation was to be referred to as: “The United States of America.” It also asserts the parity of the broken up states with the confederation administration such that “every state retains its freedom, self-government, sovereignty, and its power, authority, and right, which should not be explicitly delegated by the Confederation. “In addition the article do not identify the United States of America a “state” or “government,” yet instead say, that the said States hereby severally go into into a solid group of friendship with each one for their joint and common interests, common protection, and the safety of their liberties, strengthening the relationship among themselves to help out each other, in opposition to all might offered to, their mutual and general welfare or any of them, on relation to religious conviction, dominion, business, or any other simulation whatsoever. “It establishes liberty of movement as anybody may possibly pass unreservedly in any of the states, not including “vagabonds, paupers, and fugitives from fair dealing.” In the article all people are entitled to the rights recognized by the state into which he moves. In case a wrong is committed in a single state and the person responsible for the action flee to another state, he will be taken to and tried in the same Nation in which he/she committed the crime. The article allocates a single chance to each state to cast their votes in the assembly of the union (the “United States in congress Assembled”) this was allowed to a designation of involving two to seven members. Assembly members were selected by state legislature. Also, persons could not serve other than three out of whichever six years. it also states that the Articles are everlasting, and can only be changed by consent of Congress with approval by all the state legislatures, it reassures that the Confederation agrees with war debt incurred by Congress previous to the existence of the Articles, it also define a team of the States to be a rule while Congress is not in sitting, it also does state the powers accorded to the United States of America: to set weights, to announce war and procedures (as well as coins), and for Congress to serve as the highest court for settling differences between states, it also says that spending by the United States of America shall be paid by finances raised by state legislatures, and based on the real property values shall be apportioned to each of the states .In the article, Only the central government was permitted to carry out foreign dealings and to pronounce war. No single state could have its navy or standing armies could engage in war without the consent of Congress (even though the state militia’s existence was encouraged). Each time the military is raised for general defense, military and colonels ranks below colonel would be named by the state legislatures.” The Articles were later on replaced with the more comprehensive the United States Constitution (Mcgeehan)

Viper is a quick and easy way to check your work for plagiarism. The online scanning system matches your work against over 5 Billion online sources within seconds.

Nonetheless, weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation became clear before the Revolution finished. The Articles left the largest part of the authority in the state governments owing to doubts of recreating a tough middle power like the British Monarchy. The necessity for a income stream was broadly conceded. Under the articles, assembly lacked power to charge taxes. Instead, it had to appeal to the states to give funds to the general treasury this was never sufficient for the central government. To remedy this shortage, Congress requested to the states for authority to put down duties and make safe the public debts. Twelve states approved to such an adjustment, however Rhode Island refused to consent, by this means defeating the application. Nevertheless, the Congress borrowed cash and sold western land to make some cash.

The need for supermajorities was a subsequent defect in the Articles of confederation. Not just did every adjustment had to be approved by all the thirteen states, but also all significant legislation required the endorsement of at least nine states. With some delegates often being not in attendance, one or two states were often capable to defeat legislative proposals of main importance.

Other limitations in the Article of Confederation proved to be embarrassing as well. Congress may possibly, for example, bargain treaties with foreign powers, but all these treaties had to be endorsed by the states. Still when a treaty was accepted, Congress did not have the authority to secure compliance. The Congress could not act directly upon individuals or upon the nations. In such state of affairs, overseas nations doubted the worth of treaties with the new confederation. In addition, Congress had no power to standardize foreign or interstate business. Legislation in this field, due to irrelevant exceptions, was left to the individual States. Differences amid States with similar welfare in the direction-finding of definite rivers and bays were unavoidable. Prejudiced regulations were followed by reprisals

The nonexistence of a single, consistent, and steady currency also hindered trade among the states and with different countries. Not only did the worth of paper currency differ from state to state, but also a small number of states, like New York and Virginia, charged duties on goods incoming into their ports from other states, thereby exasperating retaliatory measures. The states could declare, as had the federal administrator of finance that their public credit was moved out. To amalgam their problems, these newly self-governing states, having separated aggressively from Britain, no longer got preferential handling at British ports. While John Adams, U.S. minister tried to bargain a profitable agreement in 1785, the British disagreed because the entity states would not be confined by it. (Jensen)

In distinction to the other state legislatures, the Massachusetts legislature forced tightly imperfect money and high taxes, which triggered creation of a little militia of farmers, headed by Daniel Shays, a former radical War army captain. The happening came to be recognized as Shays’ uprising. In a bid to take charge of the Massachusetts statehouse, others Shays required that foreclosures and unjust mortgages be left. Militias were called out and they speedily concealed the rebellion, however nationalists asked what would take place if a revolt got out of hand, George Washington warned, “present are combustibles in all states which a spark may set fire to.

Even though there were symbols of returning success in a number of areas of the fledgling states, overseas and domestic troubles continually grew. It became ever clearer to a lot of nationalists that the confederation’s central rule was not sturdy enough to set up a sound financial system, control trade, put in force treaties, or go to war when required (Isaacs).

Viper is a quick and easy way to check your work for plagiarism. The online scanning system matches your work against over 5 Billion online sources within seconds.

It is clear that The Articles of Confederation had many more weaknesses than strengths. This is so because Articles of Confederation gave a lot of power to the states and not sufficient to the central government. Basically, they formed a fragile vital administration, under which the nations could not work well as a single nation. One event that clearly shows the defects of the Articles of Confederation would be Shay’s uprising. After people started causing trouble, the richer citizens had to pay for their individual soldiers and safety because the Articles of Confederation did not give the country the authority to create a standing army.

The articles formed no separate administrative department to carry out and put into effect the acts of Congress and no state court system could interpret the meaning of laws. To make an alteration to the Articles, it had to be determined collectively by all states. As well, 9 out of the 13 states had to endorse any major law prior to it being passed. There existed no standing army to shield the nation. Every state had to create its own foreign policy, as well as the passage of treaties. Each state could make its own money and it may not be acknowledged in other states. The war left an enormous debt, but the Articles did not permit congress to collect taxes, only to solicit for cash from the states. The essential administration could not control business amid the states.

The Articles of Confederation was the first authorized administration of the United States had several severe defects. Under the Articles there was just a unicameral government so that there was no division of powers. The central administration under the Articles was too fragile since the majority of the supremacy rested with the states. Senate, under the Articles, had no influence to tax which meant that they could by no means put their finances in order. In order to alter or adjust the Articles, undisputed approval of the states was necessary which basically meant that adjustment to the Articles were not possible. For some key laws to go by, they had to be agreed by 9 of the 13 states this proved so tough to do that even the usual business of running a government was not easy. Under the Articles, senate did not have the authority to control business which would cause contest between states, as well as diplomatic issues.

While the Articles of Confederation had many defects, they were able to achieve much. It held the states as one until the Constitution were printed. It developed a just policy for the growth of the western lands. The nations ceded their claims to the lands west of the Appalachians to the vital government. This helped forge a sensation of national harmony and congress under the Articles enacted laws to put in order the western territories and acknowledge new states on the same footing with the original states. The Articles also encouraged collaboration between the states. Although it was not always successful, the Articles provided that all states give “full credit and faith” to the lawful acts of the other states. Moreover, they could bargain and make treaties with new countries (Marconi).

Another similar achievement of the Articles was the Northwest decree. This decree was passed in 1787 and permitted the settlement of the north of the Ohio River area and east of the Mississippi River. Whereas this may seem to merely be consent to go settle land, it is a lot more. By passing this order, the Articles instilled the idea of apparent future into the American man. It ensured that THE United States would go on to grow and happen to be a great nation of power and size. While the Articles may not have a lot of direct power capabilities, it is apparent that their indirect power to persuade the people was indeed well within its capabilities.

The Articles of Confederation can be referred to as the first ‘constitution’ of the United States and set out how the Federal government was to run, including implementation of United States of America, as a certified name for the new nation. The Articles were in exercise start starting 1777 following the Second Continental Congress appointment a committee to outline the Articles in June 1776 and prepared the draft to the states for endorsement in November 1777. The Articles was produced by the legislative body of the states which participated in the Second Continental Congress from a perceived call to have “an understanding with confederacy for securing the independence, sovereignty, and freedom of the United States” (Bailyn) The document enclosed 13 articles. It establishes that the confederation was to be referred to as: “The United States of America.” It also asserts the parity of the broken up states with the confederation administration such that “every state retains its freedom, self-government, sovereignty, and its power, authority, and right, which should not be explicitly delegated by the Confederation. “In addition the article do not identify the United States of America a “state” or “government,” yet instead say, that the said States hereby severally go into into a solid group of friendship with each one for their joint and common interests, common protection, and the safety of their liberties, strengthening the relationship among themselves to help out each other, in opposition to all might offered to, their mutual and general welfare or any of them, on relation to religious conviction, dominion, business, or any other simulation whatsoever. “It establishes liberty of movement as anybody may possibly pass unreservedly in any of the states, not including “vagabonds, paupers, and fugitives from fair dealing.” In the article all people are entitled to the rights recognized by the state into which he moves. In case a wrong is committed in a single state and the person responsible for the action flee to another state, he will be taken to and tried in the same Nation in which he/she committed the crime. The article allocates a single chance to each state to cast their votes in the assembly of the union (the “United States in congress Assembled”) this was allowed to a designation of involving two to seven members. Assembly members were selected by state legislature. Also, persons could not serve other than three out of whichever six years. it also states that the Articles are everlasting, and can only be changed by consent of Congress with approval by all the state legislatures, it reassures that the Confederation agrees with war debt incurred by Congress previous to the existence of the Articles, it also define a team of the States to be a rule while Congress is not in sitting, it also does state the powers accorded to the United States of America: to set weights, to announce war and procedures (as well as coins), and for Congress to serve as the highest court for settling differences between states, it also says that spending by the United States of America shall be paid by finances raised by state legislatures, and based on the real property values shall be apportioned to each of the states .In the article, Only the central government was permitted to carry out foreign dealings and to pronounce war. No single state could have its navy or standing armies could engage in war without the consent of Congress (even though the state militia’s existence was encouraged). Each time the military is raised for general defense, military and colonels ranks below colonel would be named by the state legislatures.” The Articles were later on replaced with the more comprehensive the United States Constitution (Mcgeehan)

Nonetheless, weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation became clear before the Revolution finished. The Articles left the largest part of the authority in the state governments owing to doubts of recreating a tough middle power like the British Monarchy. The necessity for a income stream was broadly conceded. Under the articles, assembly lacked power to charge taxes. Instead, it had to appeal to the states to give funds to the general treasury this was never sufficient for the central government. To remedy this shortage, Congress requested to the states for authority to put down duties and make safe the public debts. Twelve states approved to such an adjustment, however Rhode Island refused to consent, by this means defeating the application. Nevertheless, the Congress borrowed cash and sold western land to make some cash.

The need for supermajorities was a subsequent defect in the Articles of confederation. Not just did every adjustment had to be approved by all the thirteen states, but also all significant legislation required the endorsement of at least nine states. With some delegates often being not in attendance, one or two states were often capable to defeat legislative proposals of main importance.

Other limitations in the Article of Confederation proved to be embarrassing as well. Congress may possibly, for example, bargain treaties with foreign powers, but all these treaties had to be endorsed by the states. Still when a treaty was accepted, Congress did not have the authority to secure compliance. The Congress could not act directly upon individuals or upon the nations. In such state of affairs, overseas nations doubted the worth of treaties with the new confederation. In addition, Congress had no power to standardize foreign or interstate business. Legislation in this field, due to irrelevant exceptions, was left to the individual States. Differences amid States with similar welfare in the direction-finding of definite rivers and bays were unavoidable. Prejudiced regulations were followed by reprisals

The nonexistence of a single, consistent, and steady currency also hindered trade among the states and with different countries. Not only did the worth of paper currency differ from state to state, but also a small number of states, like New York and Virginia, charged duties on goods incoming into their ports from other states, thereby exasperating retaliatory measures. The states could declare, as had the federal administrator of finance that their public credit was moved out. To amalgam their problems, these newly self-governing states, having separated aggressively from Britain, no longer got preferential handling at British ports. While John Adams, U.S. minister tried to bargain a profitable agreement in 1785, the British disagreed because the entity states would not be confined by it. (Jensen)

In distinction to the other state legislatures, the Massachusetts legislature forced tightly imperfect money and high taxes, which triggered creation of a little militia of farmers, headed by Daniel Shays, a former radical War army captain. The happening came to be recognized as Shays’ uprising. In a bid to take charge of the Massachusetts statehouse, others Shays required that foreclosures and unjust mortgages be left. Militias were called out and they speedily concealed the rebellion, however nationalists asked what would take place if a revolt got out of hand, George Washington warned, “present are combustibles in all states which a spark may set fire to.

Even though there were symbols of returning success in a number of areas of the fledgling states, overseas and domestic troubles continually grew. It became ever clearer to a lot of nationalists that the confederation’s central rule was not sturdy enough to set up a sound financial system, control trade, put in force treaties, or go to war when required (Isaacs).

It is clear that The Articles of Confederation had many more weaknesses than strengths. This is so because Articles of Confederation gave a lot of power to the states and not sufficient to the central government. Basically, they formed a fragile vital administration, under which the nations could not work well as a single nation. One event that clearly shows the defects of the Articles of Confederation would be Shay’s uprising. After people started causing trouble, the richer citizens had to pay for their individual soldiers and safety because the Articles of Confederation did not give the country the authority to create a standing army.

The articles formed no separate administrative department to carry out and put into effect the acts of Congress and no state court system could interpret the meaning of laws. To make an alteration to the Articles, it had to be determined collectively by all states. As well, 9 out of the 13 states had to endorse any major law prior to it being passed. There existed no standing army to shield the nation. Every state had to create its own foreign policy, as well as the passage of treaties. Each state could make its own money and it may not be acknowledged in other states. The war left an enormous debt, but the Articles did not permit congress to collect taxes, only to solicit for cash from the states. The essential administration could not control business amid the states.

The Articles of Confederation was the first authorized administration of the United States had several severe defects. Under the Articles there was just a unicameral government so that there was no division of powers. The central administration under the Articles was too fragile since the majority of the supremacy rested with the states. Senate, under the Articles, had no influence to tax which meant that they could by no means put their finances in order. In order to alter or adjust the Articles, undisputed approval of the states was necessary which basically meant that adjustment to the Articles were not possible. For some key laws to go by, they had to be agreed by 9 of the 13 states this proved so tough to do that even the usual business of running a government was not easy. Under the Articles, senate did not have the authority to control business which would cause contest between states, as well as diplomatic issues.

While the Articles of Confederation had many defects, they were able to achieve much. It held the states as one until the Constitution were printed. It developed a just policy for the growth of the western lands. The nations ceded their claims to the lands west of the Appalachians to the vital government. This helped forge a sensation of national harmony and congress under the Articles enacted laws to put in order the western territories and acknowledge new states on the same footing with the original states. The Articles also encouraged collaboration between the states. Although it was not always successful, the Articles provided that all states give “full credit and faith” to the lawful acts of the other states. Moreover, they could bargain and make treaties with new countries (Marconi).

Another similar achievement of the Articles was the Northwest decree. This decree was passed in 1787 and permitted the settlement of the north of the Ohio River area and east of the Mississippi River. Whereas this may seem to merely be consent to go settle land, it is a lot more. By passing this order, the Articles instilled the idea of apparent future into the American man. It ensured that THE United States would go on to grow and happen to be a great nation of power and size. While the Articles may not have a lot of direct power capabilities, it is apparent that their indirect power to persuade the people was indeed well within its capabilities.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


Weaknesses

The weaknesses of the Articles would quickly lead to problems that the Founding Fathers realized would not be fixable under the current form of government. Many of these issues were brought up during the Annapolis convention of 1786. These included:

  • Each state only had one vote in Congress, regardless of size.
  • Congress did not have the power to tax.
  • Congress did not have the power to regulate foreign and interstate commerce.
  • There was no executive branch to enforce any acts passed by Congress.
  • There was no national court system or judicial branch.
  • Amendments to the Articles of Confederation required a unanimous vote.
  • Laws required a 9/13 majority to pass in Congress.
  • States could levy tariffs on other states' goods.

Under the Articles of Confederation, each state viewed its own sovereignty and power as paramount to the national good. This led to frequent arguments between the states. In addition, the states would not willingly give money to financially support the national government.

The national government was powerless to enforce any acts that Congress passed. Further, some states began to make separate agreements with foreign governments. Almost every state had its own military, called a militia. Each state printed its own money. This, along with issues with trade, meant that there was no stable national economy.

In 1786, Shays' Rebellion occurred in western Massachusetts as a protest against rising debt and economic chaos. However, the national government was unable to gather a combined military force among the states to help put down the rebellion, making clear a serious weakness in the structure of the Articles.


The Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Articles Of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation was an agreement under which the 13 original states established a federal government in 1781. The states called their confederation the United States of America, continuing the name used in the Declaration of Independence. The Articles of Confederation served as the new nation's basic map of government until the first government under the Constitution of the United States was formed in 1789. The Congress of the Confederation operated the government under the Articles


Primary Source Documents

This article helps answer “why did the articles of confederation fail?” Themes: failures of the articles of confederation, articles of confederation lack of unity, flaws of the articles of confederation, articles of confederation ineffective, problems with the articles of confederation, reasons why the articles of confederation failed, flaws of articles of confederation, failure of articles of confederation, limitations of articles of confederation, powers or institutions the national government did not have under the articles of confederation, articles of confederation and taxes, articles of confederation and currency.


Respond to this Question

History, please check

1. Which was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? (1 point) Congress did not have the power to create a military. Congress did not have the power to tax the states.*** States had no way to settle disputes between other

US History

1. What power did the national government have under the Articles of Confederation? A. taxation B. lawmaking C. commercial policy D. foreign policy **** Question 2 of 4 What was the impact of the Northwest Ordinance? Select the

History

Why did the Articles of Confederation have to be replaced by the Constitution? A) The Articles of Confederation were never ratified by the states. B) The Articles angered state leaders by giving the central government too much

Social Studies

Which of the following statements best summarizes the information provided on the chart? (1 point) The Articles of Confederation gave too much power to the individual state governments. Most of the Articles of Confederation’s

Social Studies (check my answers)

1. What was the initial purpose of the constitutional convention? To write the Constitution. To amend the Constitution.>>>my answer To amend the articles of confederation. To ratify the Constitution. 3. What did the Northwest

History8

Which of the following was NOT a reason the United States needed a stronger national government system? A.States maintained control over their own currency. B.The Articles of Confederation based the number of votes a state had in

Social studies

what are all the answers to lesson 4 unit 4 in connexus? I am stuck on this question after an excerpt- According to the excerpt, who had more power under the Articles of Confederation? 1) it gave a majority of the power to the

US HISTORY - Help please

Which answer best explains how the Articles of Confederation addressed the question of creating a court system? The Articles established the trial-by-jury system for the first time in history. The Articles created state, regional,

US History

All of the following were weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation except: A. no courts B. a vote of 50% of the thirteen states could amend the Articles C. no power to levy taxes D. no power to regulate commerce E. each state

Civics

The fact that the states had to unanimously agree to changing the Articles of Confederation meant that the states would have to begin the process of making changes to the government it didn’t matter how ordinary citizens felt

Civics ASAP PLZ =:)

What is one advantage of a confederation over a unitary government? A confederation is less likely to allow the national government to abuse power more likely to collect taxes for national projects more likely to raise a standing,

Government

Which domain of government belonged unequivocally to Congress and not to the individual states under the Articles of Confederation? A. religion B. criminal law C. national defense D. ** economic development


Articles of Confederation adopted

After 16 months of debate, the Continental Congress, sitting in its temporary capital of York, Pennsylvania, agrees to adopt the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union on November 15, 1777. Not until March 1, 1781 would the last of the 13 states, Maryland, ratify the agreement.

In 1777, Patriot leaders, stinging from British oppression, were reluctant to establish any form of government that might infringe on the right of individual states to govern their own affairs. The Articles of Confederation, then, provided for only a loose federation of American states. Congress was a single house, with each state having one vote, and a president elected to chair the assembly. Although Congress did not have the right to levy taxes, it did have authority over foreign affairs and could regulate a national army and declare war and peace. Amendments to the Articles required approval from all 13 states. On March 2, 1781, following final ratification by the 13th state, the Articles of Confederation became the law of the land.

Less than five years after the ratification of the Articles of Confederation, enough leading Americans decided that the system was inadequate to the task of governance that they peacefully overthrew their second government in just over 20 years. The difference between a collection of sovereign states forming a confederation and a federal government created by a sovereign people lay at the heart of debate as the new American people decided what form their new government would take.

In 1787, an extra-legal body met in seclusion during Philadelphia’s summer heat to create this new government. On March 4, 1789, the modern United States was established when the U.S. Constitution formally replaced the Articles of Confederation.

Between 1776 and 1789, Americans went from living under a sovereign king, to living in sovereign states, to becoming a sovereign people. That transformation defined the American Revolution.


Contents

Background Edit

The War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, and the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806. The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg ). After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia, also joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Prussia, Danish Holstein , Swedish Pomerania, and the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine. The War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to winter 1814 saw the defeat of Napoleon and the liberation of Germany. In June 1814, the famous German patriot Heinrich vom Stein created the Central Managing Authority for Germany (Zentralverwaltungsbehörde) in Frankfurt to replace the defunct Confederation of the Rhine. However, plenipotentiaries gathered at the Congress of Vienna were determined to create a weaker union of German states than envisaged by Stein.

Establishment Edit

The German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition. [6]

The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty. The states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were:

Flag Member State Notes
Anhalt-Bernburg Inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau in 1863
Anhalt-Dessau
Anhalt-Köthen Inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau in 1847 merged with Anhalt-Dessau in 1853
Austrian Empire Only a part that included the Crown of Bohemia – Bohemia, Moravia and Austrian Silesia – and Austrian lands – Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Littoral except Istria [ citation needed ] the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, were added in 1818
Baden
Bavaria
Brunswick
Hanover Annexed by Prussia, 20 September 1866
Electorate of Hesse Also known as Hesse-Kassel annexed by Prussia, 20 September 1866
Grand Duchy of Hesse Also known as Hesse-Darmstadt
Hesse-Homburg Joined in 1817 inherited by the grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt in March 1866 annexed by Prussia, 20 September 1866
Hohenzollern-Hechingen Became part of Prussia in 1850
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Became part of Prussia in 1850
Holstein Held by Danish kings in personal union since 15th century as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire (included the Danish Duchy of Schleswig 1848–1851) on 28 November 1863, the Federal Assembly removed the Danish delegate pending resolution of the succession issue and the naming of a new delegate from a government recognized by the Assembly Denmark subsequently ceded it and Sleswig jointly to Austria and Prussia on 30 October 1864 as a result of the Second Schleswig War the duchy technically remained in the Confederation pending final resolution of its status Sleswig did not become a member in the short time between this war and the dissolution of the Confederation both duchies were annexed by Prussia on 24 December 1866
Holstein-Oldenburg
Liechtenstein
Lippe-Detmold
Luxembourg With the Dutch king being the grand duke
Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Nassau Annexed by Prussia, 20 September 1866
Prussia The Province of Prussia and the Grand Duchy of Posen were only federal territory in 1848–1850
Reuss, elder line
Reuss, junior line
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Became Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1826
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Partitioned and became Saxe-Altenburg in 1826
Saxe-Hildburghausen Duchy partitioned and ruler became Duke of Saxe-Altenburg in 1826
Saxe-Lauenburg Held by Denmark since 1815 by the Treaty of Vienna (1864), King Christian IX of Denmark abdicated as duke of Saxe-Lauenburg and ceded the duchy to Prussia and Austria [7] In September 1865 William I of Prussia acceded as duke in personal union, following the Gastein Convention and a vote of the Estates of Lauenburg [7]
Saxe-Meiningen
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Saxony
Schaumburg-Lippe
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Waldeck and Pyrmont
Württemberg
Bremen
Frankfurt Annexed by Prussia, 20 September 1866
Hamburg
Lübeck

In 1839, as compensation for the loss of part of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg was created and became a member of the German Confederation (held by the Netherlands jointly with Luxembourg) until the dissolution of 1866. In 1867 the duchy was declared to be an "integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands". The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation.

The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly.

Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Assembly: the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Württemberg , the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Baden, and the Grand Duchy of Hesse.

Three foreign monarchs ruled member states: the King of Denmark as Duke of the Duchy of Holstein and Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg the King of the Netherlands as Grand Duke of Luxembourg and (from 1839) Duke of the Duchy of Limburg and the King of Great Britain (until 1837) as King of Hanover were members of the German Confederation. Each of them had a vote in the Federal Assembly. As at its foundation in 1815, that left four member states which were ruled by foreign monarchs, as the King of Denmark was Duke of both Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg.

The four free cities of Bremen , Frankfurt , Hamburg , and Lübeck shared one vote in the Federal Assembly.

The 23 remaining states (as at its formation in 1815) shared five votes in the Federal Assembly: -

1. Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Saxe-Hildburghausen (5 states)

2. Brunswick and Nassau (2 states)

3. Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz (2 states)

4. Oldenburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Köthen, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (6 states)

5. Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Liechtenstein, Reuss (Elder Branch), Reuss (Younger Branch), Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe and Waldeck (8 states)

There were therefore 17 votes in the Federal Assembly.

The German Federal Army (Deutsche Bundesheer) was decreed in 1815 to collectively defend the German Confederation from external enemies, primarily France. Successive laws passed by the Confederate Diet set the form and function of the army, as well as contribution limits of the member states. The Diet had the power to declare war and was responsible for appointing a supreme commander of the army and commanders of the individual army corps. This made mobilization extremely slow and added a political dimension to the army. In addition, the Diet oversaw the construction and maintenance of several German Federal Fortresses and collected funds annually from the member states for this purpose.

Projections of army strength were published in 1835, but the work of forming the Army Corps did not commence until 1840 as a consequence of the Rhine Crisis. Money for the fortresses were determined by an act of the Confederate Diet in that year. By 1846, Luxemburg still had not formed its own contingent, and Prussia was rebuffed for offering to supply 1,450 men to garrison the Luxemburg fortress that should have been supplied by Waldeck and the two Lippes. In that same year, it was decided that a common symbol for the Federal Army should be the old Imperial two-headed eagle, but without crown, scepter, or sword, as any of those devices encroached on the individual sovereignty of the states. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was among those who derided the "disarmed imperial eagle" as a national symbol. [8]

The German Federal Army was divided into ten Army Corps (later expanded to include a Reserve Corps). However, the Army Corps were not exclusive to the German Confederation but composed from the national armies of the member states, and did not include all of the armed forces of a state. For example, Prussia's army consisted of nine Army Corps but contributed only three to the German Federal Army.

The strength of the mobilized German Federal Army was projected to total 303,484 men in 1835 and 391,634 men in 1860, with the individual states providing the following figures: [9]

State Area [km 2 ] Population [A 1] Matriculation class [A 2]
(proportion of total)
Annual expenditures
(in Austrian Gulden)
Army Corps Troop Totals [A 3]
Austrian Empire [A 4] [A 5] 197,573 [A 5] 10,086,900 31.44% 9,432,000 I, II, III 158,037
Kingdom of Prussia [A 6] [A 5] 185,496 [A 5] 9,957,000 26.52% 7,956,000 IV, V, VI 133,769
Kingdom of Bavaria 76,258 4,120,000 11.8% 3,540,000 VII 59,334
Kingdom of Hannover 38,452 1,549,000 4.33% 1,299,000 X (1st Div., part) 21,757
Kingdom of Württemberg 19,504 1,547,400 4.63% 1,389,000 VIII (1st Div.) 23,259
Kingdom of Saxony 14,993 1,480,000 3.98% 1,194,000 IX (1st Div.) 20,000
Grand Duchy of Baden 15,269 1,175,000 3.31% 993,000 VIII (2nd Div.) 16,667
Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt 7,680 720,000 2.05% 615,000 VIII (3rd Div., part) 10,325
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 13,304 455,000 1.19% 357,000 X (2nd Div., part) 5,967
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 2,929 85,000 0.24% 72,000 X (2nd Div., part) 1,197
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg 6,420 250,000 0.73% 219,000 X (2nd Div., part) 3,740
Grand Duchy of Luxemburg (with the Duchy of Limburg) 2,586 259,500 0.40% 120,000 IX (2nd Div., part) 2,706
Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar 3,593 233,814 0.67% 201,000 Reserve (part) 3,350
Electoral Hesse 9,581 629,000 1.88% 564,000 IX (2nd Div., part) 9,466
Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau 840 57,629 0.19% 57,000 Reserve (part) 1,422
Duchy of Anhalt-Cöthen [A 7] 727 36,000 0.10% 30,000 Reserve (part) 325 [A 8]
Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg [A 9] 780 43,325 0.12% 36,000 Reserve (part) 616
Duchy of Brunswick 3,690 245,783 0.69% 20,000 X (1st Div., part) 3,493
Duchies of Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg [A 10] 9,580 450,000 0.12% 35,000 X (2nd Div., part) 6,000
Duchy of Nassau 4,700 360,000 1.00% 300,000 IX (2nd Div., part) 6,109
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg 1,287 114,048 0.33% 99,000 Reserve (part) 1,638
Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha [A 11] 2,688 156,639 0.37% 111,000 Reserve (part) 1,860
Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen [A 12] 0 0 0% 0 Reserve (part) 0 [A 13]
Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen 2,293 136,000 0.38% 114,000 Reserve (part) 1,918
Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 906 42,341 1.40% 420,000 VIII (3rd Div., part) 356 [A 14]
Principality of Hohenzollern-Hechingen 236 17,000 0.05% 15,000 VIII (3rd Div., part) 155
Principality of Lippe-Detmold 1,133 77,500 0.23% 69,000 Reserve (part) 1,202
Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe 536 23,128 0.07% 21,000 Reserve (part) 350
Principality of Liechtenstein 159 5,800 0.02% 6,000 Reserve (part) 91
Principality of Reuß elder line 316 24,500 0.07% 21,000 Reserve (part) 1,241
Principality of Reuß younger line 826 59,000 0.17% 51,000 Reserve (part) see Reuß elder line
Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 940 60,000 0.18% 54,000 Reserve (part) 899
Principality of Waldeck 1,121 56,000 0.17% 51,000 Reserve (part) 866
Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 862 51,767 0.15% 45,000 Reserve (part) 751
Landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg [A 15] 275 23,000 0.07% 21,000 Reserve (part) 333
Free City of Lübeck 298 45,600 0.13% 39,000 X (2nd Div., part) 669
Free City of Hamburg 410 154,000 0.43% 129,000 X (2nd Div., part) 2,163
Free City of Bremen 256 52,000 0.16% 48,000 X (2nd Div., part) 748
Free City of Frankfurt 101 54,000 0.16% 48,000 Reserve (part) 1,119
Notes

  1. ^ For the year 1835.
  2. ^ The matriculation class determined the percentage of expenditures for 1835.
  3. ^ For the year 1860.
  4. ^ Not included Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia (but with Auschwitz and Zator), Dalmatia, Slavonia, Croatia and upper Italian lands apart from Trieste.
  5. ^ abcd federal share.
  6. ^ Without East Prussia, West Prussia, and Posen.
  7. ^ Inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau in 1847 and formally merged in 1853.
  8. ^ Figures for 1835 merged with Anhalt-Dessau army in 1847.
  9. ^ Merged with Anhalt-Dessau in 1863.
  10. ^ Troops were attached to the Danish army until 1864, as the King of Denmark was also Duke of both lands.
  11. ^ Gotha passed to Saxe-Coburg in 1826.
  12. ^ Partitioned between Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Meiningen in 1826.
  13. ^ No figures reported before partition.
  14. ^ Figures for 1835 merged with Prussian army in 1850.
  15. ^ Merged with Grand Ducal Hesse in 1866.

Between 1806 and 1815, Napoleon organized the German states, aside from Prussia and Austria, into the Confederation of the Rhine, but this collapsed after his defeats in 1812 to 1815. The German Confederation had roughly the same boundaries as the Empire at the time of the French Revolution (less what is now Belgium). It also kept intact most of Confederation's reconstituted member states and their boundaries. The member states, drastically reduced to 39 from more than 300 (see Kleinstaaterei) under the Holy Roman Empire, were recognized as fully sovereign. The members pledged themselves to mutual defense, and joint maintenance of the fortresses at Mainz, the city of Luxembourg, Rastatt , Ulm , and Landau .

The only organ of the Confederation was the Federal Assembly (officially Bundesversammlung, often called Bundestag), which consisted of the delegates of the states' governments. There was no head of state, but the Austrian delegate presided over the Assembly (according to the Bundesakte). Austria did not have extra powers, but consequently the Austrian delegate was called Präsidialgesandther and Austria the Präsidialmacht (presiding power). The Assembly met in Frankfurt.

The Confederation was enabled to accept and deploy ambassadors. It allowed ambassadors of the European powers to the Assembly, but rarely deployed ambassadors itself.

During the revolution of 1848/49 the Federal Assembly was inactive. It transferred its powers to the Provisorische Zentralgewalt , the revolutionary German Central Government of the Frankfurt National Assembly. After crushing the revolution and illegally disbanding the National Assembly, the Prussian King failed to create a German nation state by himself. The Federal Assembly was revived in 1850 on Austrian initiative, but only fully reinstalled in the Summer of 1851.

Rivalry between Prussia and Austria grew more and more, especially after 1859. The Confederation was dissolved in 1866 after the Austro-Prussian War, and was succeeded in 1866 by the Prussian-dominated North German Confederation. Unlike the German Confederation, the North German Confederation was in fact a true state. Its territory comprised the parts of the German Confederation north of the river Main, plus Prussia's eastern territories and the Duchy of Schleswig , but excluded Austria and the other southern German states.

Prussia's influence was widened by the Franco-Prussian War resulting in the proclamation of the German Empire at Versailles on 18 January 1871, which united the North German Federation with the southern German states. All the constituent states of the former German Confederation became part of the Kaiserreich in 1871, except Austria, Luxembourg, the Duchy of Limburg, and Liechtenstein.

The late 18th century was a period of political, economic, intellectual, and cultural reforms, the Enlightenment (represented by figures such as Locke, Rousseau , Voltaire , and Adam Smith), but also involving early Romanticism, and climaxing with the French Revolution, where freedom of the individual and nation was asserted against privilege and custom. Representing a great variety of types and theories, they were largely a response to the disintegration of previous cultural patterns, coupled with new patterns of production, specifically the rise of industrial capitalism.

However, the defeat of Napoleon enabled conservative and reactionary regimes such as those of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and Tsarist Russia to survive, laying the groundwork for the Congress of Vienna and the alliance that strove to oppose radical demands for change ushered in by the French Revolution. The Great Powers at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 aimed to restore Europe (as far as possible) to its pre-war conditions by combating both liberalism and nationalism and by creating barriers around France. With Austria's position on the continent now intact and ostensibly secure under its reactionary premier Klemens von Metternich , the Habsburg empire would serve as a barrier to contain the emergence of Italian and German nation-states as well, in addition to containing France. But this reactionary balance of power, aimed at blocking German and Italian nationalism on the continent, was precarious.

After Napoleon's final defeat in 1815, the surviving member states of the defunct Holy Roman Empire joined to form the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund)—a rather loose organization, especially because the two great rivals, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, each feared domination by the other.

In Prussia the Hohenzollern rulers forged a centralized state. By the time of the Napoleonic Wars, Prussia, grounded in the virtues of its established military aristocracy (the Junkers) and stratified by rigid hierarchical lines, had been surpassed militarily and economically by France. After 1807, Prussia's defeats by Napoleonic France highlighted the need for administrative, economic, and social reforms to improve the efficiency of the bureaucracy and encourage practical merit-based education. Inspired by the Napoleonic organization of German and Italian principalities, the Prussian Reform Movement led by Karl August von Hardenberg and Count Stein was conservative, enacted to preserve aristocratic privilege while modernizing institutions.

Outside Prussia, industrialization progressed slowly, and was held back because of political disunity, conflicts of interest between the nobility and merchants, and the continued existence of the guild system, which discouraged competition and innovation. While this kept the middle class at bay, affording the old order a measure of stability not seen in France, Prussia's vulnerability to Napoleon's military proved to many among the old order that a fragile, divided, and traditionalist Germany would be easy prey for its cohesive and industrializing neighbor.

The reforms laid the foundation for Prussia's future military might by professionalizing the military and decreeing universal military conscription. In order to industrialize Prussia, working within the framework provided by the old aristocratic institutions, land reforms were enacted to break the monopoly of the Junkers on land ownership, thereby also abolishing, among other things, the feudal practice of serfdom.

Although the forces unleashed by the French Revolution were seemingly under control after the Vienna Congress, the conflict between conservative forces and liberal nationalists was only deferred at best. The era until the failed 1848 revolution, in which these tensions built up, is commonly referred to as Vormärz ("pre-March"), in reference to the outbreak of riots in March 1848.

This conflict pitted the forces of the old order against those inspired by the French Revolution and the Rights of Man. The sociological breakdown of the competition was, roughly, the emerging capitalist bourgeoisie and petit-bourgeoisie (engaged mostly in commerce, trade, and industry), and the growing (and increasingly radicalized) industrial working class and the other side associated with landowning aristocracy or military aristocracy (the Junkers) in Prussia, the Habsburg monarchy in Austria, and the conservative notables of the small princely states and city-states in Germany.

Meanwhile, demands for change from below had been fomenting due to the influence of the French Revolution. Throughout the German Confederation, Austrian influence was paramount, drawing the ire of the nationalist movements. Metternich considered nationalism, especially the nationalist youth movement, the most pressing danger: German nationalism might not only repudiate Austrian dominance of the Confederation, but also stimulate nationalist sentiment within the Austrian Empire itself. In a multi-national polyglot state in which Slavs and Magyars outnumbered the Germans, the prospects of Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Polish, Serb, or Croatian sentiment along with middle class liberalism was certainly horrifying to the monarchist landed aristocracy.

Figures like August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben , Ludwig Uhland , Georg Herwegh , Heinrich Heine , Georg Büchner , Ludwig Börne , and Bettina von Arnim rose in the Vormärz era. Father Friedrich Jahn 's gymnastic associations exposed middle class German youth to nationalist and democratic ideas, which took the form of the nationalistic and liberal democratic college fraternities known as the Burschenschaften. The Wartburg Festival in 1817 celebrated Martin Luther as a proto-German nationalist, linking Lutheranism to German nationalism, and helping arouse religious sentiments for the cause of German nationhood. The festival culminated in the burning of several books and other items that symbolized reactionary attitudes. One item was a book by August von Kotzebue . In 1819, Kotzebue was accused of spying for Russia, and then murdered by a theological student, Karl Ludwig Sand , who was executed for the crime. Sand belonged to a militant nationalist faction of the Burschenschaften. Metternich used the murder as a pretext to issue the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, which dissolved the Burschenschaften, cracked down on the liberal press, and seriously restricted academic freedom. [10]

High culture Edit

German artists and intellectuals, heavily influenced by the French Revolution, turned to Romanticism. At the universities, high-powered professors developed international reputations, especially in the humanities led by history and philology, which brought a new historical perspective to the study of political history, theology, philosophy, language, and literature. With Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) in philosophy, Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834) in theology and Leopold von Ranke (1795–1886) in history, the University of Berlin, founded in 1810, became the world's leading university. Von Ranke , for example, professionalized history and set the world standard for historiography. By the 1830s, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology had emerged with world class science, led by Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859) in natural science and Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) in mathematics. Young intellectuals often turned to politics, but their support for the failed Revolution of 1848 forced many into exile. [11]

Demographic transition Edit

The population of the German Confederation (excluding Austria) grew 60% from 1815 to 1865, from 21,000,000 to 34,000,000. [12] The era saw the demographic transition take place in Germany. It was a transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth and death rates [ citation needed ] as the country developed from a pre-industrial to a modernized agriculture and supported a fast-growing industrialized urban economic system. In previous centuries, the shortage of land meant that not everyone could marry, and marriages took place after age 25. The high birthrate was offset by a very high rate of infant mortality, plus periodic epidemics and harvest failures. After 1815, increased agricultural productivity meant a larger food supply, and a decline in famines, epidemics, and malnutrition. This allowed couples to marry earlier, and have more children. Arranged marriages became uncommon as young people were now allowed to choose their own marriage partners, subject to a veto by the parents. The upper and middle classes began to practice birth control, and a little later so too did the peasants. [13] The population in 1800 was heavily rural, [14] with only 8% of the people living in communities of 5,000 to 100,000 and another 2% living in cities of more than 100,000.

Nobility Edit

In a heavily agrarian society, land ownership played a central role. Germany's nobles, especially those in the East called Junkers, dominated not only the localities, but also the Prussian court, and especially the Prussian army. Increasingly after 1815, a centralized Prussian government based in Berlin took over the powers of the nobles, which in terms of control over the peasantry had been almost absolute. They retained control of the judicial system on their estates until 1848, as well as control of hunting and game laws. They paid no land tax until 1861 and kept their police authority until 1872, and controlled church affairs into the early 20th century. To help the nobility avoid indebtedness, Berlin set up a credit institution to provide capital loans in 1809, and extended the loan network to peasants in 1849. When the German Empire was established in 1871, the nobility controlled the army and the Navy, the bureaucracy, and the royal court they generally set governmental policies. [15] [16]

Peasantry Edit

Peasants continued to center their lives in the village, where they were members of a corporate body and helped manage community resources and monitor community life. In the East, they were serfs who were bound prominently to parcels of land. In most of Germany, farming was handled by tenant farmers who paid rents and obligatory services to the landlord, who was typically a nobleman. [17] Peasant leaders supervised the fields and ditches and grazing rights, maintained public order and morals, and supported a village court which handled minor offenses. Inside the family, the patriarch made all the decisions and tried to arrange advantageous marriages for his children. Much of the villages' communal life centered around church services and holy days. In Prussia, the peasants drew lots to choose conscripts required by the army. The noblemen handled external relationships and politics for the villages under their control, and were not typically involved in daily activities or decisions. [18] [19]

Rapidly growing cities Edit

After 1815, the urban population grew rapidly, due primarily to the influx of young people from the rural areas. Berlin grew from 172,000 people in 1800 to 826,000 in 1870 Hamburg grew from 130,000 to 290,000 Munich from 40,000 to 269,000 Breslau (now Wrocław ) from 60,000 to 208,000 Dresden from 60,000 to 177,000 Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) from 55,000 to 112,000. Offsetting this growth, there was extensive emigration, especially to the United States. Emigration totaled 480,000 in the 1840s, 1,200,000 in the 1850s, and 780,000 in the 1860s. [20]

Ethnic minorities Edit

Despite its name and intention, the German Confederation was not entirely populated by Germans many people of other ethnic groups lived within its borders:

    Walloons lived in western Luxembourg prior to its division in 1839
  • the Duchy of Limburg (a member between 1839 and 1866) was populated solely by Dutchmen and Slovenians lived in south and southeast Austria
  • Bohemia and Moravia, of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were inhabited by a majority of Czechs had a Polish minority, while Sorbs were present in the parts of Saxony and the Prussian province of Brandenburg known as Lusatia.

Further efforts to improve the confederation began in 1834 with the establishment of a customs union, the Zollverein. In 1834, the Prussian regime sought to stimulate wider trade advantages and industrialism by decree—a logical continuation of the program of Stein and Hardenberg less than two decades earlier. Historians have seen three Prussian goals: as a political tool to eliminate Austrian influence in Germany as a way to improve the economies and to strengthen Germany against potential French aggression while reducing the economic independence of smaller states. [21]

Inadvertently, these reforms sparked the unification movement and augmented a middle class demanding further political rights, but at the time backwardness and Prussia's fears of its stronger neighbors were greater concerns. The customs union opened up a common market, ended tariffs between states, and standardized weights, measures, and currencies within member states (excluding Austria), forming the basis of a proto-national economy. [22]

By 1842 the Zollverein included most German states. Within the next twenty years the output of German furnaces increased fourfold. Coal production grew rapidly as well. In turn, German industry (especially the works established by the Krupp family) introduced the steel gun, cast-steel axle, and a breech-loading rifle, exemplifying Germany's successful application of technology to weaponry. Germany's security was greatly enhanced, leaving the Prussian state and the landowning aristocracy secure from outside threat. German manufacturers also produced heavily for the civilian sector. No longer would Britain supply half of Germany's needs for manufactured goods, as it did beforehand. [23] However, by developing a strong industrial base, the Prussian state strengthened the middle class and thus the nationalist movement. Economic integration, especially increased national consciousness among the German states, made political unity a far likelier scenario. Germany finally began exhibiting all the features of a proto-nation.

The crucial factor enabling Prussia's conservative regime to survive the Vormärz era was a rough coalition between leading sectors of the landed upper class and the emerging commercial and manufacturing interests. Marx and Engels , in their analysis of the abortive 1848 Revolutions, defined such a coalition: "a commercial and industrial class which is too weak and dependent to take power and rule in its own right and which therefore throws itself into the arms of the landed aristocracy and the royal bureaucracy, exchanging the right to rule for the right to make money." [24] Even if the commercial and industrial element is weak, it must be strong enough (or soon become strong enough) to become worthy of co-optation, and the French Revolution terrified enough perceptive elements of Prussia's Junkers for the state to be sufficiently accommodating.

While relative stability was maintained until 1848, with enough bourgeois elements still content to exchange the "right to rule for the right to make money", the landed upper class found its economic base sinking. While the Zollverein brought economic progress and helped to keep the bourgeoisie at bay for a while, it increased the ranks of the middle class swiftly—the very social base for the nationalism and liberalism that the Prussian state sought to stem.

The Zollverein was a move toward economic integration, modern industrial capitalism, and the victory of centralism over localism, quickly bringing to an end the era of guilds in the small German princely states. This led to the 1844 revolt of the Silesian Weavers, who saw their livelihood destroyed by the flood of new manufactures.

The Zollverein also weakened Austrian domination of the Confederation as economic unity increased the desire for political unity and nationalism.

News of the 1848 Revolution in Paris quickly reached discontented bourgeois liberals, republicans and more radical working-men. The first revolutionary uprisings in Germany began in the state of Baden in March 1848. Within a few days, there were revolutionary uprisings in other states including Austria, and finally in Prussia. On 15 March 1848, the subjects of Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia vented their long-repressed political aspirations in violent rioting in Berlin, while barricades were erected in the streets of Paris. King Louis-Philippe of France fled to Great Britain. Friedrich Wilhelm gave in to the popular fury, and promised a constitution, a parliament, and support for German unification, safeguarding his own rule and regime. [25] [26]

On 18 May, the Frankfurt Parliament (Frankfurt Assembly) opened its first session, with delegates from various German states. It was immediately divided between those favoring a kleindeutsche (small German) or grossdeutsche (greater German) solution. The former favored offering the imperial crown to Prussia. The latter favored the Habsburg crown in Vienna, which would integrate Austria proper and Bohemia (but not Hungary) into the new Germany.

From May to December, the Assembly eloquently (and leisurely) debated academic topics while conservatives swiftly moved against the reformers. As in Austria and Russia, this middle-class assertion increased authoritarian and reactionary sentiments among the landed upper class, whose economic position was declining. They turned to political levers to preserve their rule. As the Prussian army proved loyal, and the peasants were uninterested, Friedrich Wilhelm regained his confidence. The Assembly belatedly issued its Declaration of the Rights of the German People a constitution was drawn up (excluding Austria, which openly rejected the Assembly), and the leadership of the Reich was offered to Friedrich Wilhelm , who refused to "pick up a crown from the gutter". As the monarchist forces marched their armies to crush rebellions in cities and towns throughout Austria and Germany the Frankfurt Assembly was forced to flee, first to Stuttgart and then to Württemberg, where, reduced to so few deputies that it could no longer form a quorum, its final meeting was forcibly dispersed on 18 June 1849 by the Württemberg army. With the complete triumph of monarchist reaction rampaging across all of Europe, thousands of German middle class liberals and "red" Forty-eighters were forced to flee into exile (primarily to the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia).

In 1849, Friedrich Wilhelm proposed his own constitution. His document concentrated real power in the hands of the King and the upper classes, and called for a confederation of North German states—the Erfurt Union. Austria and Russia, fearing a strong, Prussian-dominated Germany, responded by pressuring Saxony and Hanover to withdraw, and forced Prussia to abandon the scheme in a treaty dubbed the "humiliation of Olmütz ".

Rise of Bismarck Edit

A new generation of statesmen responded to popular demands for national unity for their own ends, continuing Prussia's tradition of autocracy and reform from above. Germany found an able leader to accomplish the seemingly paradoxical task of conservative modernization. In 1851, Bismarck was appointed by King Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future Kaiser Wilhelm I) to circumvent the liberals in the Landtag of Prussia, who resisted Wilhelm's autocratic militarism. Bismarck told the Diet, "The great questions of the day are not decided by speeches and majority votes . but by blood and iron" — that is, by warfare and industrial might. [27] Prussia already had a great army it was now augmented by rapid growth of economic power.

Gradually, Bismarck subdued the more restive elements of the middle class with a combination of threats and reforms, reacting to the revolutionary sentiments expressed in 1848 by providing them with the economic opportunities for which the urban middle sectors had been fighting. [28]

Seven Weeks' War Edit

The German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The Confederation had 33 members immediately before its dissolution. In the Prague peace treaty, on 23 August 1866, Austria had to accept that the Confederation was dissolved. [29] The following day, the remaining member states confirmed the dissolution. The treaty allowed Prussia to create a new Bundesverhältnis (a new kind of federation) in the North of Germany. The South German states were allowed to create a South German Confederation but this did not come into existence.

North German Confederation Edit

Prussia created the North German Confederation in 1867 covering all German states north of the river Main and also the Hohenzollern territories in Swabia. Besides Austria, the South German states Bavaria, Württemberg , Baden , and Hesse- Darmstadt remained separate from the rest of Germany. However, due to the successful prosecution of the Franco-Prussian War, the four southern states joined the North German Confederation by treaty in November 1870. [30]

German Empire Edit

As the Franco-Prussian War drew to a close, King Ludwig II of Bavaria was persuaded to ask King Wilhelm to assume the crown of the new German Empire. On 1 January 1871, the Empire was declared by the presiding princes and generals in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, near Paris. The Diet of the North German Confederation moved to rename the North German Confederation as the German Empire and gave the title of German Emperor to the King of Prussia. [31] The new constitution of the state, the Constitution of the German Confederation, effectively transformed the Diet of the Confederation into the German Parliament (Reichstag). [32]

The current countries whose territory were partly or entirely located inside the boundaries of the German Confederation 1815–1866 are:

  • Germany (all states except Southern Schleswig in the north of Schleswig-Holstein )
  • Austria (all states except Burgenland ) (entire territory) (entire territory)
  • Netherlands (Duchy of Limburg, was a member of the Confederation from 1839 till 1866)
  • Czech Republic (entire territory) (except for Prekmurje and the municipalities of Koper , Izola and Piran )
  • Poland (West Pomeranian Voivodship, Lubusz Voivodship, Lower Silesian Voivodship, Opole Voivodship, part of Silesia — overwhelmingly German speaking at the time East Prussia, West Prussia, and much of the Grand Duchy of Posen were admitted into the Confederation on 11 April 1848, [33] but the terms of the restored Confederate Diet removed these territories on 30 May 1851) [34]
  • Belgium (nine of the eleven cantons of Eupen-Malmedy, Liège Province) the larger province of Luxembourg had left the Confederation at its accession to Belgium in 1839
  • Italy (autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol , the Province of Trieste, most of the Province of Gorizia except the Monfalcone enclave, and the municipalities of Tarvisio , Malborghetto Valbruna , Pontebba , Aquileia , Fiumicello , and Cervignano in the Province of Udine)
  • Croatia (the Pazin territory in Istria county and the coastal strip between Opatija and Plomin in the Liburnia region)
  • The Danish crown had been a member only in the context of its ownership of the Duchy of Holstein and the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg. Schleswig first joined on 12 April 1848 after a revolutionary government was formed in opposition to the new Danish Constitution. [35] The London Protocol of 1852 removed Schleswig from the Confederation, but the Second War of Schleswig returned the Duchy to the Confederation under Prussian governance as per the Treaty of Vienna in 1864.
  1. ^ The German Confederation did not include German-speaking lands in the eastern portion of the Kingdom of Prussia (East Prussia and parts of West Prussia and Posen), the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland (including a third of majority francophone Fribourg and Valais), Alsace and a north-eastern strip of Lorraine in France, and southern portions of Schleswig (Kingdom of Denmark).
  2. ^"German Confederation". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. ^Deutsche Geschichte 1848/49, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885–1892
  4. ^
  5. Lee, Loyd E. (1985). "The German Confederation and the Consolidation of State Power in the South German States, 1815–1848". Consortium on Revolutionary Europe, 1750–1850: Proceedings. 15: 332–346. ISSN0093-2574.
  6. ^ Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Band III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3rd edition, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1988, p. 559/560.
  7. ^
  8. Heeren, Arnold Hermann Ludwig (1873), Talboys, David Alphonso (ed.), A Manual of the History of the Political System of Europe and its Colonies, London: H. G. Bohn, pp. 480–481
  9. ^ ab"LAUENBURG", in: Encyclopædia Britannica: 29 vols., 11 1910–1911, vol. 16 'L to Lord Advocate', p. 280.
  10. ^ Treitschke, Heinrich. History of Germany in the Nineteenth Century. Jarrold & Sons, London, 1919. Vol. VII, p. 519.
  11. ^Beilage zum Militaer-Wochenblatt fuer das deutsche Bundesheer. No. 3, 1860.
  12. ^
  13. Williamson, George S. (2000). "What Killed August von Kotzebue? The Temptations of Virtue and the Political Theology of German Nationalism, 1789–1819". Journal of Modern History. 72 (4): 890–943. doi:10.1086/318549. JSTOR318549.
  14. ^
  15. Sheehan, James J. (1989). German History: 1770–1866 . New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 324–371, 802–820. ISBN0198221207 .
  16. ^
  17. Nipperdey, Thomas (1996). Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck: 1800–1866. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 86. ISBN069102636X .
  18. ^
  19. Nipperdey, Thomas (1996). Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck: 1800–1866. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 87–92, 99. ISBN069102636X .
  20. ^
  21. Clapham, J. H. (1936). The Economic Development of France and Germany: 1815–1914. Cambridge University Press. pp. 6–28.
  22. ^
  23. Weber, Eugen (1971). A Modern History of Europe . New York: Norton. p. 586. ISBN0393099814 .
  24. ^Sagarra 1977, pp. 37–55, 183–202
  25. ^ The monasteries of Bavaria, which controlled 56% of the land, were broken up by the government, and sold off around 1803.
  26. Nipperdey, Thomas (1996). Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck: 1800–1866. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 59. ISBN069102636X .
  27. ^Sagarra 1977, pp. 140–154
  28. ^ For details on the life of a representative peasant farmer, who migrated in 1710 to Pennsylvania, see
  29. Kratz, Bernd (2008). "Hans Stauffer: A Farmer in Germany Before his Emigration to Pennsylvania". Genealogist. 22 (2): 131–169.
  30. ^ Nipperdey, Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck: 1800–1866 pp 96–97
  31. ^
  32. Murphy, David T. (1991). "Prussian aims for the Zollverein, 1828–1833". Historian. 53 (2): 285–302. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1991.tb00808.x.
  33. ^ W. O. Henderson, The Zollverein (1959) is the standard history in English
  34. ^ William Manchester, The Arms of Krupp, 1587–1968 (1968)
  35. ^ Karl Marx, Selected Works, II., "Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution", written mainly by Engels.
  36. ^ James J. Sheehan, German History, 1770–1866 (1993), pp 656–710
  37. ^
  38. Mattheisen, Donald J. (1983). "History as Current Events: Recent Works on the German Revolution of 1848". American Historical Review. 88 (5): 1219–1237. doi:10.2307/1904890. JSTOR1904890.
  39. ^
  40. Kitchen, Martin (2006). A History of Modern Germany, 1800–2000. p. 105.
  41. ^ Otto Pflanze, Bismarck and the Development of Germany, Vol. 1: The Period of Unification, 1815–1871 (1971)
  42. ^ Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3rd edition, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1988, p. 571, 576.
  43. ^
  44. Case, Nelson (1902). European Constitutional History. Cincinnati: Jennings & Pye. p. 139. OCLC608806061.
  45. ^Case 1902, pp. 139–140
  46. ^ Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3rd edition, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [u. a.] 1988, p. 747.
  47. ^ Heinrich Sybel, The Founding of the German Empire by William I. 1890. Volume 1, page 182.
  48. ^ Charles Eugene Little, Cyclopedia of Classified Dates: With an Exhaustive Index, 1900, page 819.
  49. ^ Wilhelm Eichhoff, How Schleswig-Holstein has become what it is. Henry Gaskarth, 1864, page 18.
  • Stier, Hans-Erich (1976). Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (Map). Westermann. (in German, detailed maps)
  • Moore, Jr., Barrington (1993) [1966]. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. ISBN9780140550863 .
  • Blackbourn, David (1998). The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany, 1780–1918. ISBN9780195076714 .
  • Blackbourn, David Eley, Geoff (1984). The Peculiarities of German History: Bourgeois Society and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Germany.
  • Brose, Eric Dorn (1997). German History, 1789–1871: From the Holy Roman Empire to the Bismarckian Reich.
  • Evans, Richard J. Lee, W. R., eds. (1986). The German Peasantry: Conflict and Community from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries.
  • Nipperdey, Thomas (1996). Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck.
  • Pflanze, Otto (1971). Bismarck and the Development of Germany, Vol. 1: The Period of Unification, 1815-1871.
  • Ramm, Agatha (1967). Germany, 1789–1919.
  • Sagarra, Eda (1977). A Social History of Germany: 1648–1914. pp. 37–55, 183–202. ISBN0841903328 .
  • Sagarra, Eda (1980). Introduction to Nineteenth Century Germany.
  • Sheehan, James J (1993). German History, 1770–1866.
  • Werner, George S (1977). Bavaria in the German Confederation 1820–1848.

140 ms 10.4% dataWrapper 100 ms 7.5% validateData 60 ms 4.5% 40 ms 3.0% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getEntity 40 ms 3.0% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getEntityStatements 40 ms 3.0% format 40 ms 3.0% [others] 260 ms 19.4% Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 1/400 -->


Watch the video: Der Amerikanische Bürgerkrieg Folge 5 Die Schlachten Teil 1 1 (January 2022).