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Pablo Picasso born

Pablo Picasso born

Pablo Picasso, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, is born in Malaga, Spain.

Picasso’s father was a professor of drawing, and he bred his son for a career in academic art. Picasso had his first exhibit at age 13 and later quit art school so he could experiment full-time with modern art styles. He went to Paris for the first time in 1900, and in 1901 was given an exhibition at a gallery on Paris’ rue Lafitte, a street known for its prestigious art galleries. The precocious 19-year-old Spaniard was at the time a relative unknown outside Barcelona, but he had already produced hundreds of paintings. Winning favorable reviews, he stayed in Paris for the rest of the year and later returned to the city to settle permanently.

The work of Picasso, which comprises more than 50,000 paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, and ceramics produced over 80 years, is described in a series of overlapping periods. His first notable period–the “blue period”—began shortly after his first Paris exhibit. In works such as The Old Guitarist (1903), Picasso painted in blue tones to evoke the melancholy world of the poor. The blue period was followed by the “rose period,” in which he often depicted circus scenes, and then by Picasso’s early work in sculpture. In 1907, Picasso painted the groundbreaking work Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which, with its fragmented and distorted representation of the human form, broke from previous European art. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon demonstrated the influence on Picasso of both African mask art and Paul Cezanne and is seen as a forerunner of the Cubist movement, founded by Picasso and the French painter Georges Braque in 1909.

In Cubism, which is divided into two phases, analytical and synthetic, Picasso and Braque established the modern principle that artwork need not represent reality to have artistic value. Major Cubist works by Picasso included his costumes and sets for Sergey Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes (1917) and The Three Musicians (1921). Picasso and Braque’s Cubist experiments also resulted in the invention of several new artistic techniques, including collage.

After Cubism, Picasso explored classical and Mediterranean themes, and images of violence and anguish increasingly appeared in his work. In 1937, this trend culminated in the masterpiece Guernica, a monumental work that evoked the horror and suffering endured by the Basque town of Guernica when it was destroyed by German war planes during the Spanish Civil War. Picasso remained in Paris during the Nazi occupation but was fervently opposed to fascism and after the war joined the French Communist Party.

Picasso’s work after World War II is less studied than his earlier creations, but he continued to work feverishly and enjoyed commercial and critical success. He produced fantastical works, experimented with ceramics and painted variations on the works of other masters in the history of art. Known for his intense gaze and domineering personality, he had a series of intense and overlapping love affairs in his lifetime. He continued to produce art with undiminished force until his death in 1973 at the age of 91.


The Messed Up Real-Life Story Of Pablo Picasso

Baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso, Pablo Picasso was one of the most popular Western artists of his time and his legacy precedes him to this day. He worked primarily as a painter, though he was a prolific sculptor and printmaker as well. Picasso died at the age of 91, creating over 145,000 pieces of art throughout his long life. While he's primarily credited for his cubist work, his artistic style was varied and ambiguous. He dabbled in religion and politics, but ultimately Picasso fell under his own label.

Spending most of his life in France, Picasso's life was punctuated by various love affairs with decidedly young women who served as inspiration for his artistic work.

Pablo Picasso was one of the few artists who was able to achieve both fame and fortune during his lifetime. At the time of his death in 1973, his estate was worth between $100 and $250 million, roughly between $500 million and $1 billion today adjusting for inflation. But despite his success and his wealth, the life of Picasso wasn't always rosy. This is the messed up real-life story of Pablo Picasso.


Family tree of Pablo PICASSO

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by German and Italian air forces during the Spanish Civil War.
Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the slightly older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were often paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mid-1920s often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles.
Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. .

Picasso was born at 23:15 on 25 October 1881, in the city of Málaga, Andalusia, in southern Spain. He was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913) and María Picasso y López. Picasso's family was of middle-class background. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life, Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats.
Picasso's birth certificate and the record of his baptism include very long names, combining those of various saints and relatives. Ruiz y Picasso were his paternal and maternal surnames, respectively, per Spanish custom. The surname "Picasso" comes from Liguria, a coastal region of north-western Italy its capital is Genoa. There was a painter from the area named Matteo Picasso (1794–1879), born in Recco (Genoa), of late neoclassical style portraiture, though investigations have not definitively determined his kinship with the branch of ancestors related to Pablo Picasso. The direct branch from Sori, Liguria (Genoa), can be traced back to Tommaso Picasso (1728–1813). His son Giovanni Battista, married to Isabella Musante, was Pablo's great-great-grandfather. Of this marriage was born Tommaso (Sori, 1787–Málaga, 1851). Pablo's maternal great-grandfather, Tommaso Picasso moved to Spain around 1807.Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "piz, piz", a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for "pencil". From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork.
The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting, though paintings by him exist from later years.
In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died of diphtheria. After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home. Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the jury admitted him, at just 13. As a student, Picasso lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings. The two argued frequently.Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the country's foremost art school. At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrollment. Madrid held many other attractions. The Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco elements such as his elongated limbs, arresting colours, and mystical visages are echoed in Picasso's later work.

Picasso's training under his father began before 1890. His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist's beginnings. During 1893 the juvenile quality of his earliest work falls away, and by 1894 his career as a painter can be said to have begun. The academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in The First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts his sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called "without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting."In 1897, his realism began to show a Symbolist influence, for example, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non-naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call his Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with his admiration for favourite old masters such as El Greco, led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period.Picasso made his first trip to Paris, then the art capital of Europe, in 1900. There, he met his first Parisian friend, journalist and poet Max Jacob, who helped Picasso learn the language and its literature. Soon they shared an apartment Max slept at night while Picasso slept during the day and worked at night. These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work was burned to keep the small room warm. During the first five months of 1901, Picasso lived in Madrid, where he and his anarchist friend Francisco de Asís Soler founded the magazine Arte Joven (Young Art), which published five issues. Soler solicited articles and Picasso illustrated the journal, mostly contributing grim cartoons depicting and sympathizing with the state of the poor. The first issue was published on 31 March 1901, by which time the artist had started to sign his work Picasso. From 1898 he signed his works as "Pablo Ruiz Picasso", then as "Pablo R. Picasso" until 1901. The change does not seem to imply a rejection of the father figure. Rather, he wanted to distinguish himself from others initiated by his Catalan friends who habitually called him by his maternal surname, much less current than the paternal Ruiz.

Picasso's Blue Period (1901–1904), characterized by sombre paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green only occasionally warmed by other colours, began either in Spain in early 1901 or in Paris in the second half of the year. Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from the Blue Period, during which Picasso divided his time between Barcelona and Paris. In his austere use of colour and sometimes doleful subject matter—prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects—Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carles Casagemas. Starting in autumn of 1901, he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art.The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast (1904), which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness, a recurrent theme in Picasso's works of this period, is also represented in The Blindman's Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina (1903). Other Blue Period works include Portrait of Soler and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch.

The Rose Period (1904–1906) is characterised by a lighter tone and style utilising orange and pink colours and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a bohemian artist who became his mistress, in Paris in 1904. Olivier appears in many of his Rose Period paintings, many of which are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting. The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e., just prior to the Blue Period), and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods.

By 1905, Picasso became a favourite of American art collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein. Their older brother Michael Stein and his wife Sarah also became collectors of his work. Picasso painted portraits of both Gertrude Stein and her nephew Allan Stein. Gertrude Stein became Picasso's principal patron, acquiring his drawings and paintings and exhibiting them in her informal Salon at her home in Paris. At one of her gatherings in 1905, he met Henri Matisse, who was to become a lifelong friend and rival. The Steins introduced him to Claribel Cone and her sister Etta, who were American art collectors they also began to acquire Picasso's and Matisse's paintings. Eventually Leo Stein moved to Italy. Michael and Sarah Stein became patrons of Matisse, while Gertrude Stein continued to collect Picassos.In 1907, Picasso joined an art gallery that had recently been opened in Paris by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, a German art historian and art collector who became one of the premier French art dealers of the 20th century. He was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and the Cubism that they jointly developed. Kahnweiler promoted burgeoning artists such as André Derain, Kees van Dongen, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Maurice de Vlaminck and several others who had come from all over the globe to live and work in Montparnasse at the time.


African art and primitivism: 1907–1909

Picasso's African-influenced Period (1907–1909) begins with his painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Picasso painted this composition in a style inspired by Iberian sculpture, but repainted the faces of the two figures on the right after being powerfully impressed by African artefacts he saw in June 1907 in the ethnographic museum at Palais du Trocadéro. When he displayed the painting to acquaintances in his studio later that year, the nearly universal reaction was shock and revulsion Matisse angrily dismissed the work as a hoax. Picasso did not exhibit Les Demoiselles publicly until 1916.
Other works from this period include Nude with Raised Arms (1907) and Three Women (1908). Formal ideas developed during this period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.


Analytic cubism: 1909–1912
Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colours. Both artists took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time share many similarities.
In Paris, Picasso entertained a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, poet Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Alfred Jarry and Gertrude Stein. In 1911, Picasso was arrested and questioned about the theft of the Mona Lisa from the Louvre. Suspicion for the crime had initially fallen upon Apollinaire due to his links to Géry Pieret, an artist with a history of thefts from the gallery. Apollinaire in turn implicated his close friend Picasso, who had also purchased stolen artworks from the artist in the past. Afraid of a conviction that could result in his deportation to Spain, Picasso denied having ever met Apollinaire. Both were later cleared of any involvement in the painting's disappearance.


Synthetic cubism: 1912–1919

Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre of cubism, in which cut paper fragments – often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages – were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art.
Between 1915 and 1917, Picasso began a series of paintings depicting highly geometric and minimalist Cubist objects, consisting of either a pipe, a guitar or a glass, with an occasional element of collage. "Hard-edged square-cut diamonds", notes art historian John Richardson, "these gems do not always have upside or downside". "We need a new name to designate them," wrote Picasso to Gertrude Stein. The term "Crystal Cubism" was later used as a result of visual analogies with crystals at the time. These "little gems" may have been produced by Picasso in response to critics who had claimed his defection from the movement, through his experimentation with classicism within the so-called return to order following the war.After acquiring some fame and fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom he called Eva Gouel. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Picasso was devastated by her premature death from illness at the age of 30 in 1915.At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Picasso was living in Avignon. Braque and Derain were mobilized and Apollinaire joined the French artillery, while the Spaniard Juan Gris remained from the Cubist circle. During the war, Picasso was able to continue painting uninterrupted, unlike his French comrades. His paintings became more sombre and his life changed with dramatic consequences. Kahnweiler's contract had terminated on his exile from France. At this point Picasso's work would be taken on by the art dealer Léonce Rosenberg. After the loss of Eva Gouel, Picasso had an affair with Gaby Lespinasse. During the spring of 1916, Apollinaire returned from the front wounded. They renewed their friendship, but Picasso began to frequent new social circles.

Towards the end of World War I, Picasso became involved with Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Among his friends during this period were Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, Juan Gris, and others. In the summer of 1918, Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Erik Satie's Parade, in Rome they spent their honeymoon near Biarritz in the villa of glamorous Chilean art patron Eugenia Errázuriz.

After returning from his honeymoon and in need of money, Picasso started his exclusive relationship with the French-Jewish art dealer Paul Rosenberg. As part of his first duties, Rosenberg agreed to rent the couple an apartment in Paris at his own expense, which was located next to his own house. This was the start of a deep brother-like friendship between two very different men, that would last until the outbreak of World War II.
Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and other dimensions of the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo Picasso, who would grow up to be a motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. During the same period that Picasso collaborated with Diaghilev's troupe, he and Igor Stravinsky collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several drawings of the composer.In 1927, Picasso met 17-year-old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khokhlova's death in 1955. Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Marie-Thérèse Walter and fathered a daughter with her, named Maya. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

Neoclassicism and surrealism: 1919–1929

In February 1917, Picasso made his first trip to Italy. In the period following the upheaval of World War I, Picasso produced work in a neoclassical style. This "return to order" is evident in the work of many European artists in the 1920s, including André Derain, Giorgio de Chirico, Gino Severini, Jean Metzinger, the artists of the New Objectivity movement and of the Novecento Italiano movement. Picasso's paintings and drawings from this period frequently recall the work of Raphael and Ingres.
In 1925 the Surrealist writer and poet André Breton declared Picasso as 'one of ours' in his article Le Surréalisme et la peinture, published in Révolution surréaliste. Les Demoiselles was reproduced for the first time in Europe in the same issue. Yet Picasso exhibited Cubist works at the first Surrealist group exhibition in 1925 the concept of 'psychic automatism in its pure state' defined in the Manifeste du surréalisme never appealed to him entirely. He did at the time develop new imagery and formal syntax for expressing himself emotionally, "releasing the violence, the psychic fears and the eroticism that had been largely contained or sublimated since 1909", writes art historian Melissa McQuillan. Although this transition in Picasso's work was informed by Cubism for its spatial relations, "the fusion of ritual and abandon in the imagery recalls the primitivism of the Demoiselles and the elusive psychological resonances of his Symbolist work", writes McQuillan. Surrealism revived Picasso's attraction to primitivism and eroticism.

The Great Depression to MoMA exhibition: 1930–1939
During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a common motif in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and it appears in Picasso's Guernica. The minotaur and Picasso's mistress Marie-Thérèse Walter are heavily featured in his celebrated Vollard Suite of etchings.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War – Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Asked to explain its symbolism, Picasso said, "It isn't up to the painter to define the symbols. Otherwise it would be better if he wrote them out in so many words! The public who look at the picture must interpret the symbols as they understand them." Guernica was exhibited in July 1937 at the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris International Exposition, and then became the centerpiece of an exhibition of 118 works by Picasso, Matisse, Braque and Henri Laurens that toured Scandinavia and England. After the victory of Francisco Franco in Spain, the painting was sent to the United States to raise funds and support for Spanish refugees. Until 1981 it was entrusted to the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City, as it was Picasso's expressed desire that the painting should not be delivered to Spain until liberty and democracy had been established in the country.
In 1939 and 1940, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, under its director Alfred Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, held a major retrospective of Picasso's principal works until that time. This exhibition lionized Picasso, brought into full public view in America the scope of his artistry, and resulted in a reinterpretation of his work by contemporary art historians and scholars. According to Jonathan Weinberg, "Given the extraordinary quality of the show and Picasso's enormous prestige, generally heightened by the political impact of Guernica . the critics were surprisingly ambivalent". Picasso's "multiplicity of styles" was disturbing to one journalist another described him as "wayward and even malicious" Alfred Frankenstein's review in ARTnews concluded that Picasso was both charlatan and genius.


World War II and late 1940s: 1939–1949

During the Second World War, Picasso remained in Paris while the Germans occupied the city. Picasso's artistic style did not fit the Nazi ideal of art, so he did not exhibit during this time. He was often harassed by the Gestapo. During one search of his apartment, an officer saw a photograph of the painting Guernica. "Did you do that?" the German asked Picasso. "No," he replied, "You did".Retreating to his studio, he continued to paint, producing works such as the Still Life with Guitar (1942) and The Charnel House (1944–48). Although the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso continued regardless, using bronze smuggled to him by the French Resistance.Around this time, Picasso wrote poetry as an alternative outlet. Between 1935 and 1959 he wrote over 300 poems. Largely untitled except for a date and sometimes the location of where it was written (for example "Paris 16 May 1936"), these works were gustatory, erotic and at times scatological, as were his two full-length plays Desire Caught by the Tail (1941) and The Four Little Girls (1949).In 1944, after the liberation of Paris, Picasso, then 63 years old, began a romantic relationship with a young art student named Françoise Gilot. She was 40 years younger than he was. Picasso grew tired of his mistress Dora Maar Picasso and Gilot began to live together. Eventually they had two children: Claude Picasso, born in 1947 and Paloma Picasso, born in 1949. In her 1964 book Life with Picasso, Gilot describes his abusive treatment and myriad infidelities which led her to leave him, taking the children with her. This was a severe blow to Picasso.

Picasso had affairs with women of an even greater age disparity than his and Gilot's. While still involved with Gilot, in 1951 Picasso had a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who was four years younger than Gilot. By his 70s, many paintings, ink drawings and prints have as their theme an old, grotesque dwarf as the doting lover of a beautiful young model. Jacqueline Roque (1927–1986) worked at the Madoura Pottery in Vallauris on the French Riviera, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. She became his lover, and then his second wife in 1961. The two were together for the remainder of Picasso's life.
His marriage to Roque was also a means of revenge against Gilot with Picasso's encouragement, Gilot had divorced her then husband, Luc Simon, with the plan to marry Picasso to secure the rights of her children as Picasso's legitimate heirs. Picasso had already secretly married Roque, after Gilot had filed for divorce. His strained relationship with Claude and Paloma was never healed.By this time, Picasso had constructed a huge Gothic home, and could afford large villas in the south of France, such as Mas Notre-Dame-de-Vie on the outskirts of Mougins, and in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. He was an international celebrity, with often as much interest in his personal life as his art.


Later works to final years: 1949–1973

Picasso was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in mid-1949. In the 1950s, Picasso's style changed once again, as he took to producing reinterpretations of the art of the great masters. He made a series of works based on Velázquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix.
In addition to his artistic accomplishments, Picasso made a few film appearances, always as himself, including a cameo in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus (1960). In 1955, he helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50-foot (15 m)-high public sculpture to be built in Chicago, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and somewhat controversial. What the figure represents is not known it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Chicago, was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of the city.
Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his means of expression in constant flux until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 to 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate etchings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see the late works of Picasso as prefiguring Neo-Expressionism.Pablo Picasso died on 8 April 1973 in Mougins, France, from pulmonary edema and heart failure, while he and his wife Jacqueline entertained friends for dinner. He was interred at the Château of Vauvenargues near Aix-en-Provence, a property he had acquired in 1958 and occupied with Jacqueline between 1959 and 1962. Jacqueline prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Devastated and lonely after the death of Picasso, Jacqueline killed herself by gunshot in 1986 when she was 59 years old.

Picasso remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. He did not join the armed forces for any side or country during World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. However, in 1940, he did apply for French citizenship, but it was refused on the grounds of his "extremist ideas evolving towards communism". This information was not revealed until 2003.At the start of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Picasso was 54 years of age. Soon after hostilities began, the Republicans appointed him "director of the Prado, albeit in absentia", and "he took his duties very seriously", according to John Richardson, supplying the funds to evacuate the museum's collection to Geneva. The war provided the impetus for Picasso's first overtly political work. He expressed anger and condemnation of Francisco Franco and fascists in The Dream and Lie of Franco (1937), which was produced "specifically for propagandistic and fundraising purposes". This surreal fusion of words and images was intended to be sold as a series of postcards to raise funds for the Spanish Republican cause.In 1944, Picasso joined the French Communist Party, attended the World Congress of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace in Poland, and in 1950 received the Stalin Peace Prize from the Soviet government. Party criticism in 1953 of his portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Soviet politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His dealer, D-H. Kahnweiler, a socialist, termed Picasso's communism "sentimental" rather than political, saying "He has never read a line of Karl Marx, nor of Engels of course." In a 1945 interview with Jerome Seckler, Picasso stated: "I am a Communist and my painting is Communist painting. . But if I were a shoemaker, Royalist or Communist or anything else, I would not necessarily hammer my shoes in a special way to show my politics." His commitment to communism, common among continental intellectuals and artists at the time, has long been the subject of some controversy a notable demonstration thereof was a quote commonly attributed to Salvador Dalí (with whom Picasso had a rather strained relationship):

Picasso es pintor, yo también [. ] Picasso es español, yo también Picasso es comunista, yo tampoco.
(Picasso is a painter, so am I [. ] Picasso is a Spaniard, so am I Picasso is a communist, neither am I.)In the late 1940s, his old friend the surrealist poet and Trotskyist and anti-Stalinist André Breton was more blunt refusing to shake hands with Picasso, he told him: "I don't approve of your joining the Communist Party nor with the stand you have taken concerning the purges of the intellectuals after the Liberation".
Picasso was against the intervention of the United Nations and the United States in the Korean War and he depicted it in Massacre in Korea. The art critic Kirsten Hoving Keen says that it is "inspired by reports of American atrocities" and considers it one of Picasso's communist works.On 9 January 1949, Picasso created Dove, a black and white lithograph. It was used to illustrate a poster at the 1949 World Peace Council and became an iconographic image of the period, known as "The dove of peace". Picasso's image was used around the world as a symbol of the Peace Congresses and Communism.In 1962, he received the Lenin Peace Prize. Biographer and art critic John Berger felt his talents as an artist were "wasted" by the communists. According to Jean Cocteau's diaries, Picasso once said to him in reference to the communists: "I have joined a family, and like all families, it's full of shit".

Picasso was exceptionally prolific throughout his long lifetime. The total number of artworks he produced has been estimated at 50,000, comprising 1,885 paintings 1,228 sculptures 2,880 ceramics, roughly 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints, and numerous tapestries and rugs. Picasso's output was several times more prolific than most artists of his era by at least one account, American artist Bob Ross is the only one to rival Picasso's volume, and Ross's artwork was designed specifically to be easily mass-produced quickly.The medium in which Picasso made his most important contribution was painting. In his paintings, Picasso used colour as an expressive element, but relied on drawing rather than subtleties of colour to create form and space. He sometimes added sand to his paint to vary its texture. A nanoprobe of Picasso's The Red Armchair (1931), in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago, by physicists at Argonne National Laboratory in 2012 confirmed art historians' belief that Picasso used common house paint in many of his paintings. Much of his painting was done at night by artificial light.
Picasso's early sculptures were carved from wood or modelled in wax or clay, but from 1909 to 1928 Picasso abandoned modelling and instead made sculptural constructions using diverse materials. An example is Guitar (1912), a relief construction made of sheet metal and wire that Jane Fluegel terms a "three-dimensional planar counterpart of Cubist painting" that marks a "revolutionary departure from the traditional approaches, modeling and carving".

From the beginning of his career, Picasso displayed an interest in subject matter of every kind, and demonstrated a great stylistic versatility that enabled him to work in several styles at once. For example, his paintings of 1917 included the pointillist Woman with a Mantilla, the Cubist Figure in an Armchair, and the naturalistic Harlequin (all in the Museu Picasso, Barcelona). In 1919, he made a number of drawings from postcards and photographs that reflect his interest in the stylistic conventions and static character of posed photographs. In 1921 he simultaneously painted several large neoclassical paintings and two versions of the Cubist composition Three Musicians (Museum of Modern Art, New York Philadelphia Museum of Art). In an interview published in 1923, Picasso said, "The several manners I have used in my art must not be considered as an evolution, or as steps towards an unknown ideal of painting . If the subjects I have wanted to express have suggested different ways of expression I have never hesitated to adopt them."Although his Cubist works approach abstraction, Picasso never relinquished the objects of the real world as subject matter. Prominent in his Cubist paintings are forms easily recognized as guitars, violins, and bottles. When Picasso depicted complex narrative scenes it was usually in prints, drawings, and small-scale works Guernica (1937) is one of his few large narrative paintings.Picasso painted mostly from imagination or memory. According to William Rubin, Picasso "could only make great art from subjects that truly involved him . Unlike Matisse, Picasso had eschewed models virtually all his mature life, preferring to paint individuals whose lives had both impinged on, and had real significance for, his own." The art critic Arthur Danto said Picasso's work constitutes a "vast pictorial autobiography" that provides some basis for the popular conception that "Picasso invented a new style each time he fell in love with a new woman". The autobiographical nature of Picasso's art is reinforced by his habit of dating his works, often to the day. He explained: "I want to leave to posterity a documentation that will be as complete as possible. That's why I put a date on everything I do."

Picasso's influence was and remains immense and widely acknowledged by his admirers and detractors alike. On the occasion of his 1939 retrospective at MoMA, Life magazine wrote: "During the 25 years he has dominated modern European art, his enemies say he has been a corrupting influence. With equal violence, his friends say he is the greatest artist alive." Picasso was the first artist to receive a special honour exhibition at the Grand Gallery of the Louvre Museum in Paris in celebration of his 90 years. In 1998, Robert Hughes wrote of him: "To say that Pablo Picasso dominated Western art in the 20th century is, by now, the merest commonplace. . No painter or sculptor, not even Michelangelo, had been as famous as this in his own lifetime. . Though Marcel Duchamp, that cunning old fox of conceptual irony, has certainly had more influence on nominally vanguard art over the past 30 years than Picasso, the Spaniard was the last great beneficiary of the belief that the language of painting and sculpture really mattered to people other than their devotees."

At the time of Picasso's death many of his paintings were in his possession, as he had kept off the art market what he did not need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties (estate tax) to the French state were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of his early works, created while he was living in Spain, including many rarely seen works which reveal his firm grounding in classical techniques. The museum also holds many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, his close friend and personal secretary.
Guernica was on display in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981, it was returned to Spain and was on exhibit at the Casón del Buen Retiro of the Museo del Prado. In 1992, the painting was put on display in the Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.
It was announced on 22 September 2020 that the project for a new Picasso Museum due to open in Aix-en-Provence in 2021, in a former convent (Couvent des Prêcheurs), which would have held the largest collection of his paintings of any museum, had been scrapped due to the fact that Catherine Hutin-Blay, Jacqueline Picasso's daughter, and the City Council had failed to reach an agreement.In the 1996 movie Surviving Picasso, Picasso is portrayed by actor Anthony Hopkins. Picasso is also a character in Steve Martin's 1993 play, Picasso at the Lapin Agile. In A Moveable Feast by Ernest Hemingway, Hemingway tells Gertrude Stein that he would like to have some Picassos, but cannot afford them. Later in the book, Hemingway mentions looking at one of Picasso's paintings. He refers to it as Picasso's nude of the girl with the basket of flowers, possibly related to Young Naked Girl with Flower Basket.
On 8 October 2010, Picasso: Masterpieces from the Musée National Picasso, Paris, an exhibition of 150 paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints and photographs from the Musée National Picasso in Paris, opened at the Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington, US. The exhibition subsequently travelled to Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia: the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, California, US. the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia and the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
As of 2015, Picasso remained the top-ranked artist (based on sales of his works at auctions) according to the Art Market Trends report. More of his paintings have been stolen than any other artist's in 2012, the Art Loss Register had 1,147 of his works listed as stolen. The Picasso Administration functions as his official Estate. The US copyright representative for the Picasso Administration is the Artists Rights Society.Picasso is played by Antonio Banderas in the 2018 season of Genius, which focuses on his life and art.

In the 1940s, a Swiss insurance company based in Basel had bought two paintings by Picasso to diversify its investments and serve as a guarantee for the insured risks. Following an air disaster in 1967, the company had to pay out heavy reimbursements. The company decided to part with the two paintings, which were deposited in the Kunstmuseum Basel. In 1968, a large number of Basel citizens called for a local referendum on the purchase of the Picassos by the Canton of Basel-Stadt, which was successful, making it the first time in democratic history that the population of a city voted on the purchase of works of art for a public art museum. The paintings therefore remained in the museum in Basel. Informed of this, Picasso offered three paintings and a sketch to the city and its museum and was later made an honorary citizen by the city.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. Garçon à la pipe sold for US$104 million at Sotheby's on 4 May 2004, establishing a new price record. Dora Maar au Chat sold for US$95.2 million at Sotheby's on 3 May 2006. On 4 May 2010, Nude, Green Leaves and Bust was sold at Christie's for $106.5 million. The 1932 work, which depicts Picasso's mistress Marie-Thérèse Walter reclining and as a bust, was in the personal collection of Los Angeles philanthropist Frances Lasker Brody, who died in November 2009. On 11 May 2015 his painting Women of Algiers set the record for the highest price ever paid for a painting when it sold for US$179.3 million at Christie's in New York.On 21 June 2016, a painting by Pablo Picasso titled Femme Assise (1909) sold for £43.2 million ($63.4 million) at Sotheby's London, exceeding the estimate by nearly $20 million, setting a world record for the highest price ever paid at auction for a Cubist work.On 17 May 2017, The Jerusalem Post in an article titled "Picasso Work Stolen By Nazis Sells for $45 Million at Auction" reported the sale of a portrait painted by Picasso, the 1939 Femme assise, robe bleu, which was previously misappropriated during the early years of WWII. The painting has changed hands several times since its recovery, most recently through auction in May 2017 at Christie's in New York City.In March 2018, his Femme au Béret et à la Robe Quadrillée (1937), a portrait of Marie-Thérèse Walter, sold for £49.8m at Sotheby's in London.


Personal life
Throughout his life Picasso maintained several mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso was married twice and had four children by three women:

Paulo (4 February 1921 – 5 June 1975, Paul Joseph Picasso) – with Olga Khokhlova
Maya (born 5 September 1935, Maria de la Concepcion Picasso) – with Marie-Thérèse Walter
Claude (born 15 May 1947, Claude Pierre Pablo Picasso) – with Françoise Gilot
Paloma (born 19 April 1949, Anne Paloma Picasso) – with Françoise GilotPhotographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.
The women in Picasso's life played an important role in the emotional and erotic aspects of his creative expression, and the tumultuous nature of these relationships has been considered vital to his artistic process. Many of these women functioned as muses for him, and their inclusion in his extensive oeuvre granted them a place in art history. A largely recurring motif in his body of work is the female form. The variations in his relationships informed and collided with his progression of style throughout his career. For example, portraits created of his first wife, Olga, were rendered in a naturalistic style during his Neoclassical period. His relationship with Marie-Thérèse Walter inspired many of his surrealist pieces, as well as what is referred to as his "Year of Wonders". Reappearance of acrobats theme in 1905 put an end to his "Blue Period" and transitioned into his "Rose Period". This transition has been incorrectly attributed to the presence of Fernande Olivier in his life.Picasso has been commonly characterised as a womaniser and a misogynist, being quoted as having said to one of his mistresses, Françoise Gilot, "Women are machines for suffering." He later told her, "For me there are only two kinds of women: goddesses and doormats." In her memoir, Picasso, My Grandfather, Marina Picasso writes of his treatment of women, "He submitted them to his animal sexuality, tamed them, bewitched them, ingested them, and crushed them onto his canvas. After he had spent many nights extracting their essence, once they were bled dry, he would dispose of them."Of the several important women in his life, two, Marie-Thèrése Walter, a mistress, and Jacqueline Roque, his second wife, died by suicide. Others, notably his first wife Olga Khokhlova, and his mistress Dora Maar, succumbed to nervous breakdowns. His son, Paulo, developed a fatal alcoholism due to depression. His grandson, Pablito, also died by suicide when he was barred by Jacqueline Roque from attending the artist's funeral.


Catalogue raisonné
Picasso entrusted Christian Zervos to constitute the catalogue raisonné of his work (painted and drawn). The first volume of the catalogue, Works from 1895 to 1906, published in 1932, entailed the financial ruin of Zervos, self-publishing under the name Cahiers d'art, forcing him to sell part of his art collection at auction to avoid bankruptcy.From 1932 to 1978, Zervos constituted the catalogue raisonné of the complete works of Picasso in the company of the artist who had become one of his friends in 1924. Following the death of Zervos, Mila Gagarin supervised the publication of 11 additional volumes from 1970 to 1978.The 33 volumes cover the entire work from 1895 to 1972, with close to 16,000 black and white photographs, in accord with the will of the artist.
1932: tome I, Œuvres de 1895 à 1906. Introduction p. XI–[XXXXIX], 185 pages, 384 reproductions
1942: tome II, vol.1, Œuvres de 1906 à 1912. Introduction p. XI–[LV], 172 pages, 360 reproductions
1944: tome II, vol.2, Œuvres de 1912 à 1917. Introduction p. IX–[LXX–VIII], 233 p. pp. 173 to 406, 604 reproductions
1949: tome III, Œuvres de 1917 à 1919. Introduction p. IX–[XIII], 152 pages, 465 reproductions
1951: tome IV, Œuvres de 1920 à 1922. Introduction p. VII–[XIV], 192 pages, 455 reproductions
1952: tome V, Œuvres de 1923 à 1925. Introduction p. IX–[XIV], 188 pages, 466 reproductions
1954: tome VI, Supplément aux tomes I à V. Sans introduction, 176 pages, 1481 reproductions
1955: tome VII, Œuvres de 1926 à 1932. Introduction p. V–[VII], 184 pages, 424 reproductions
1978: Catalogue raisonné des œuvres de Pablo Picasso, Paris, éditions Cahiers d'artFurther publications by Zervos

Picasso. Œuvres de 1920 à 1926, Cahiers d'art, Paris
Dessins de Picasso 1892–1948, Paris, éditions Cahiers d'art, 1949
Picasso. Dessins (1892–1948), Hazan, 199 reproductions, 1949


See also
List of Picasso artworks 1901–1910
List of Picasso artworks 1911–1920
Neoclassicism
Picasso's written works


Sources
Becht-Jördens, Gereon Wehmeier, Peter M. (2003). Picasso und die christliche Ikonographie: Mutterbeziehung und künstlerische Position. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-496-01272-6.
Berger, John (1989). The Success and Failure of Picasso. Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-679-72272-4.
Cirlot, Juan Eduardo (1972). Picasso, Birth of a Genius. New York and Washington: Praeger.
Cowling, Elizabeth Mundy, Jennifer (1990). On Classic Ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism, 1910–1930. London: Tate Gallery. ISBN 978-1-85437-043-3.
Daix, Pierre (1994). Picasso: Life and Art. Icon Editions. ISBN 978-0-06-430201-2.
FitzGerald, Michael C. (1996). Making Modernism: Picasso and the Creation of the Market for Twentieth-century Art. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20653-3.
Gether, Christian, ed. (2019). Beloved by Picasso: The Power of the Model. ARKEN Museum of Modern Art. 978-87-78751-34-8.
Granell, Eugenio Fernández (1981). Picasso's Guernica: The End of a Spanish Era. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press. ISBN 978-0-8357-1206-4.
Krauss, Rosalind E. (1999). The Picasso Papers. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-61142-8.
Mallén, Enrique (2003). The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-5692-8.
Mallén, Enrique (2005). La sintaxis de la carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. ISBN 978-956-284-455-0.
Mallén, Enrique (2009). A Concordance of Pablo Picasso's Spanish Writings. New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-7734-4713-4.
Mallén, Enrique (2010). A Concordance of Pablo Picasso's French Writings. New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-7734-1325-2. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
Nill, Raymond M (1987). A Visual Guide to Pablo Picasso's Works. New York: B&H Publishers.
Picasso, Olivier Widmaier (2004). Picasso: The Real Family Story. Prestel. ISBN 978-3-7913-3149-2.
Rubin, William (1981). Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective. Little Brown & Co. ISBN 978-0-316-70703-9.
Wattenmaker, Richard J. (1993). Great French Paintings from the Barnes Foundation: Impressionist, Post-impressionist, and Early Modern. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-40963-2.
Wertenbaker, Lael Tucker (1967). The World of Picasso (1881– ). Time-Life Books.


Further reading
Alexandra Schwartz, "Painted Love: The artist Françoise Gilot was Picasso's lover, helpmate, and muse. Then she wanted more", The New Yorker, 22 July 2019, pages 62–66. "[L]ives were trampled. Picasso died, at the age of ninety-one, in 1973. In 1977, Marie-Thérèse Walter hanged herself eight years later, Jacqueline Roque, Gilot's successor and Picasso's second wife, shot herself in the head. Paulo, his son with Olga [Khokhlova], drank himself to death, in 1975, and Paulo's son, Pablito, killed himself by swallowing bleach when he was barred from attending his grandfather's funeral." (p. 66.)


External links
Works by or about Pablo Picasso at Internet Archive
Works by or about Pablo Picasso in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Picasso discography at Discogs
Picasso at IMDb
Picasso in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
"On-line Picasso Project".
Picasso at the Guggenheim Museum
Picasso at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA)
Picasso at Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, New York)
Picasso at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) (New York City, New York)
Musée National Picasso (Paris, France)
Museo Picasso Málaga (Málaga, Spain)
Museu Picasso (Barcelona, Spain)
Picasso at the National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC)
Picasso, L'Esprit nouveau: revue internationale d'esthétique, 1920. Gallica, Bibliothèque nationale de France
Lambiek Comiclopedia article about Pablo Picasso.


Biography from Wikipedia (see original) under licence CC BY-SA 3.0

Geographical origins

The map below shows the places where the ancestors of the famous person lived.


Contents

Picasso was born at 23:15 on 25 October 1881, in the city of Málaga, Andalusia, in southern Spain. [2] He was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913) and María Picasso y López. [14] Picasso's family was of middle-class background. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life, Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. [1] Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats.

Picasso's birth certificate and the record of his baptism include very long names, combining those of various saints and relatives. [a] [c] Ruiz y Picasso were his paternal and maternal surnames, respectively, per Spanish custom. The surname "Picasso" comes from Liguria, a coastal region of north-western Italy its capital is Genoa. [16] There was a painter from the area named Matteo Picasso [it] (1794–1879), born in Recco (Genoa), of late neoclassical style portraiture, [16] though investigations have not definitively determined his kinship with the branch of ancestors related to Pablo Picasso. The direct branch from Sori, Liguria (Genoa), can be traced back to Tommaso Picasso (1728–1813). His son Giovanni Battista, married to Isabella Musante, was Pablo's great-great-grandfather. Of this marriage was born Tommaso (Sori, 1787–Málaga, 1851). Pablo's maternal great-grandfather, Tommaso Picasso moved to Spain around 1807. [16]

Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "piz, piz", a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for "pencil". [17] From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork.

The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting, [18] though paintings by him exist from later years.

In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died of diphtheria. [19] After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home. [20] Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the jury admitted him, at just 13. As a student, Picasso lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings. The two argued frequently. [21]

Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the country's foremost art school. [20] At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrollment. Madrid held many other attractions. The Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco elements such as his elongated limbs, arresting colours, and mystical visages are echoed in Picasso's later work. [22]

Before 1900 Edit

Picasso's training under his father began before 1890. His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist's beginnings. [23] During 1893 the juvenile quality of his earliest work falls away, and by 1894 his career as a painter can be said to have begun. [24] The academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in The First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts his sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called "without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting." [25]

In 1897, his realism began to show a Symbolist influence, for example, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non-naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call his Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with his admiration for favourite old masters such as El Greco, led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period. [26]

Picasso made his first trip to Paris, then the art capital of Europe, in 1900. There, he met his first Parisian friend, journalist and poet Max Jacob, who helped Picasso learn the language and its literature. Soon they shared an apartment Max slept at night while Picasso slept during the day and worked at night. These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work was burned to keep the small room warm. During the first five months of 1901, Picasso lived in Madrid, where he and his anarchist friend Francisco de Asís Soler founded the magazine Arte Joven (Young Art), which published five issues. Soler solicited articles and Picasso illustrated the journal, mostly contributing grim cartoons depicting and sympathizing with the state of the poor. The first issue was published on 31 March 1901, by which time the artist had started to sign his work Picasso. [27] From 1898 he signed his works as "Pablo Ruiz Picasso", then as "Pablo R. Picasso" until 1901. The change does not seem to imply a rejection of the father figure. Rather, he wanted to distinguish himself from others initiated by his Catalan friends who habitually called him by his maternal surname, much less current than the paternal Ruiz. [28]

Blue Period: 1901–1904 Edit

Picasso's Blue Period (1901–1904), characterized by sombre paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green only occasionally warmed by other colours, began either in Spain in early 1901 or in Paris in the second half of the year. [29] Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from the Blue Period, during which Picasso divided his time between Barcelona and Paris. In his austere use of colour and sometimes doleful subject matter—prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects—Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carles Casagemas. Starting in autumn of 1901, he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art. [30]

The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast (1904), [31] which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness, a recurrent theme in Picasso's works of this period, is also represented in The Blindman's Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina (1903). Other Blue Period works include Portrait of Soler and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch.

Rose Period: 1904–1906 Edit

The Rose Period (1904–1906) [32] is characterised by a lighter tone and style utilising orange and pink colours and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a bohemian artist who became his mistress, in Paris in 1904. [19] Olivier appears in many of his Rose Period paintings, many of which are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting. The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e., just prior to the Blue Period), and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods.

By 1905, Picasso became a favourite of American art collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein. Their older brother Michael Stein and his wife Sarah also became collectors of his work. Picasso painted a portrait of Gertrude Stein and one of her nephew Allan Stein. Gertrude Stein became Picasso's principal patron, acquiring his drawings and paintings and exhibiting them in her informal Salon at her home in Paris. [34] At one of her gatherings in 1905, he met Henri Matisse, who was to become a lifelong friend and rival. The Steins introduced him to Claribel Cone and her sister Etta, who were American art collectors they also began to acquire Picasso's and Matisse's paintings. Eventually Leo Stein moved to Italy. Michael and Sarah Stein became patrons of Matisse, while Gertrude Stein continued to collect Picassos. [35]

In 1907, Picasso joined an art gallery that had recently been opened in Paris by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, a German art historian and art collector who became one of the premier French art dealers of the 20th century. He was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and the Cubism that they jointly developed. Kahnweiler promoted burgeoning artists such as André Derain, Kees van Dongen, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Maurice de Vlaminck and several others who had come from all over the globe to live and work in Montparnasse at the time. [36]

African art and primitivism: 1907–1909 Edit

Picasso's African-influenced Period (1907–1909) begins with his painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Picasso painted this composition in a style inspired by Iberian sculpture, but repainted the faces of the two figures on the right after being powerfully impressed by African artefacts he saw in June 1907 in the ethnographic museum at Palais du Trocadéro. [37] When he displayed the painting to acquaintances in his studio later that year, the nearly universal reaction was shock and revulsion Matisse angrily dismissed the work as a hoax. [38] Picasso did not exhibit Les Demoiselles publicly until 1916.

Other works from this period include Nude with Raised Arms (1907) and Three Women (1908). Formal ideas developed during this period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.

Analytic cubism: 1909–1912 Edit

Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colours. Both artists took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time share many similarities.

In Paris, Picasso entertained a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, poet Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Alfred Jarry and Gertrude Stein. In 1911, Picasso was arrested and questioned about the theft of the Mona Lisa from the Louvre. Suspicion for the crime had initially fallen upon Apollinaire due to his links to Géry Pieret, an artist with a history of thefts from the gallery. Apollinaire in turn implicated his close friend Picasso, who had also purchased stolen artworks from the artist in the past. Afraid of a conviction that could result in his deportation to Spain, Picasso denied having ever met Apollinaire. Both were later cleared of any involvement in the painting's disappearance. [39] [40]

Synthetic cubism: 1912–1919 Edit

Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre of cubism, in which cut paper fragments – often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages – were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art.

Between 1915 and 1917, Picasso began a series of paintings depicting highly geometric and minimalist Cubist objects, consisting of either a pipe, a guitar or a glass, with an occasional element of collage. "Hard-edged square-cut diamonds", notes art historian John Richardson, "these gems do not always have upside or downside". [41] [42] "We need a new name to designate them," wrote Picasso to Gertrude Stein. The term "Crystal Cubism" was later used as a result of visual analogies with crystals at the time. [43] [41] [44] These "little gems" may have been produced by Picasso in response to critics who had claimed his defection from the movement, through his experimentation with classicism within the so-called return to order following the war. [41] [43]

After acquiring some fame and fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom he called Eva Gouel. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Picasso was devastated by her premature death from illness at the age of 30 in 1915. [45]

At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Picasso was living in Avignon. Braque and Derain were mobilized and Apollinaire joined the French artillery, while the Spaniard Juan Gris remained from the Cubist circle. During the war, Picasso was able to continue painting uninterrupted, unlike his French comrades. His paintings became more sombre and his life changed with dramatic consequences. Kahnweiler's contract had terminated on his exile from France. At this point Picasso's work would be taken on by the art dealer Léonce Rosenberg. After the loss of Eva Gouel, Picasso had an affair with Gaby Lespinasse. During the spring of 1916, Apollinaire returned from the front wounded. They renewed their friendship, but Picasso began to frequent new social circles. [46]

Towards the end of World War I, Picasso became involved with Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Among his friends during this period were Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, Juan Gris, and others. In the summer of 1918, Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Erik Satie's Parade, in Rome they spent their honeymoon near Biarritz in the villa of glamorous Chilean art patron Eugenia Errázuriz.

After returning from his honeymoon and in need of money, Picasso started his exclusive relationship with the French-Jewish art dealer Paul Rosenberg. As part of his first duties, Rosenberg agreed to rent the couple an apartment in Paris at his own expense, which was located next to his own house. This was the start of a deep brother-like friendship between two very different men, that would last until the outbreak of World War II.

Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and other dimensions of the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo Picasso, [47] who would grow up to be a motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. During the same period that Picasso collaborated with Diaghilev's troupe, he and Igor Stravinsky collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several drawings of the composer. [48]

In 1927, Picasso met 17-year-old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khokhlova's death in 1955. Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Marie-Thérèse Walter and fathered a daughter with her, named Maya. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

1909, Femme assise (Sitzende Frau), oil on canvas, 100 × 80 cm, Staatliche Museen, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin


Pablo Picasso - Biography and Legacy

Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born into a creative family. His father was a painter, and he quickly showed signs of following the same path: his mother claimed that his first word was "piz," a shortened version of lapiz, or pencil, and his father was his first teacher. Picasso began formally studying art at the age of 11. Several paintings from his teenage years still exist, such as First Communion (1895), which is typical in its conventional, if accomplished, academic style. His father groomed the young prodigy to be a great artist by getting Picasso the best education the family could afford and visiting Madrid to see works by Spanish Old Masters. And when the family moved to Barcelona so his father could take up a new post, Picasso continued his art education.

Early Training

It was in Barcelona that Picasso first matured as a painter. He frequented the Els Quatre Gats, a café popular with bohemians, anarchists, and modernists. And he came to be familiar with Art Nouveau and Symbolism, and artists such as Edvard Munch and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec. It was here that he met Jaime Sabartes, who would go on to be his fiercely loyal secretary in later years. This was his introduction to a cultural avant-garde, in which young artists were encouraged to express themselves.

During the years from 1900 to 1904, Picasso traveled frequently, spending time in Madrid and Paris, in addition to spells in Barcelona. Although he began making sculpture during this time, critics characterize this time as his Blue Period, after the blue/grey palette that dominated his paintings. The mood of the work was also insistently melancholic. One might see the beginnings of this in the artist's sadness over the suicide of Carlos Casegemas, a friend he had met in Barcelona, though the subjects of much of the Blue Period work were drawn from the beggars and prostitutes he encountered in city streets. The Old Guitarist (1903) is a typical example of both the subject matter and the style of this phase.

In 1904, Picasso's palette began to brighten, and for a year or more he painted in a style that has been characterized as his Rose Period. He focused on performers and circus figures, switching his palette to various shades of more uplifting reds and pinks. And around 1906, soon after he had met artist Georges Braque, his palette darkened, his forms became heavier and more solid in aspect, and he began to find his way towards Cubism.

Mature Period

In the past critics dated the beginnings of Cubism to his early masterpiece Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907). Although that work is now seen as transitional (lacking the radical distortions of his later experiments), it was clearly crucial in his development since it was heavily influenced by African sculpture and ancient Iberian art. It is said to have inspired Braque to paint his own first series of Cubist paintings, and in subsequent years the two would mount one of the most remarkable collaborations in modern painting, sometimes eagerly learning from each other, at other times trying to outdo one another in their fast-paced and competitive race to innovate. They visited each other daily during their formulation of this radical technique, and Picasso described himself and Braque as "two mountaineers, roped together." In their shared vision, multiple perspectives on an object are depicted simultaneously by being fragmented and rearranged in splintered configurations. Form and space became the most crucial elements, and so both artists restricted their palettes to earth tones, in stark contrast with the bright colors used by the Fauves that had preceded them. Picasso would always have an artist or a group he collaborated with, but as Braque biographer Alex Danchev wrote: Picasso's "Braque period" was "the most concentrated and fruitful of his whole career."

Picasso rejected the label "Cubism," especially when critics began to differentiate between the two key approaches he was said to pursue - Analytic and Synthetic. He saw his body of work as a continuum. But it is beyond doubt that there was a change in his work around 1912. He became less concerned with representing the placement of objects in space than in using shapes and motifs as signs to playfully allude to their presence. He developed the technique of collage, and from Braque he learned the related method of papiers colles, which used cutout pieces of paper in addition to fragments of existing materials. This phase has since come to be known as the "Synthetic" phase of Cubism, due to its reliance on various allusions to an object in order to create the description of it. This approach opened up the possibilities of more decorative and playful compositions, and its versatility encouraged Picasso to continue to utilize it well in the 1920s.

But the artist's dawning interest in ballet also sent his work in new directions around 1916. This was in part prompted by meeting the poet, artist, and filmmaker Jean Cocteau. Through him he met Sergei Diaghilev, and went on to produce numerous set designs for the Ballets Russes.

For some years Picasso had occasionally toyed with classical imagery, and he began to give this free rein in the early 1920s. His figures became heavier and more massive, and he often imagined them against backgrounds of a Mediterranean Golden Age. They have long been associated with the wider conservative trends of Europe's so-called rappel a l'ordre, (return to order), a period of art now known as Interwar Classicism.

His encounter with Surrealism in the mid 1920s again prompted a change of direction. His work became more expressive, and often violent or erotic. This phase in his work can also be correlated with the period in his personal life when his marriage to dancer Olga Khokhlova began to break down and he began a new relationship with Marie-Therese Walter. Indeed, critics have often noted how changes in style in Picasso's work often go hand in hand with changes in his romantic relationships his partnership with Khokhlova spanned the years of his interest in dance and, later, his time with Jacqueline Roque is associated with his late phase in which he became preoccupied with his legacy alongside the Old Masters. Picasso frequently painted the women he was in love with, and, as a result, his tumultuous personal life is well represented on canvas. He was known to have kept many mistresses, most famously Eva Gouel, Dora Maar, and Françoise Gilot. He married twice, and had four children, Claude, Paloma, Maia, and Paulo.

In the late 1920s he began a collaboration with the sculptor Julio González. This was his most significant creative partnership since he had worked alongside Braque, and it culminated in welded metal sculptures, which were subsequently highly influential.

As the 1930s wore on, political concerns began to cloud Picasso's view, and these would continue to preoccupy him for some time. His disgust at the bombing of civilians in the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War prompted him to create the painting Guernica, in 1937. During World War II he stayed in Paris, and the German authorities left him sufficiently unmolested to allow him to continue his work. However, the war did have a huge impact on Picasso, with his Paris painting collection confiscated by Nazis and some of his closest Jewish friends killed. Picasso made works commemorating them - sculptures employing hard, cold materials such as metal, and a particularly violent follow up to Guernica, entitled The Charnel House (1945). Following the war he was also closely involved with the Communist Party, and several major pictures from this period, such as War in Korea (1951), make that new allegiance clear.

Late Years and Death

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Picasso worked on his own versions of canonical masterpieces by artists such as Nicolas Poussin, Diego Velázquez, and El Greco. In the later years of his life, Picasso sought solace from his celebrity, marrying Jacqueline Rogue in 1961. His later paintings were heavily portrait-based and their palettes nearly garish in hue. Critics have generally considered them inferior to his earlier work, though in recent years they have been more enthusiastically received. He also created many ceramic and bronze sculptures during this later period. He died of a heart attack in the South of France in 1973.

The Legacy of Pablo Picasso

Picasso's influence was profound and far-reaching, and remarkably, many periods of his life were influential in their own right. His early Symbolist pieces remain iconic, while innovations in pioneering Cubism established a set of pictorial problems, devices, and approaches, which remained important well into the 1950s. Even after the war, even though the energy in avant-garde art shifted to New York, Picasso remained a titanic figure, and one who could never be ignored. Indeed, even though the Abstract Expressionists could be said to have superseded aspects of Cubism (even while being strongly influenced by him), The Museum of Modern Art in New York has been called "the house that Pablo built," because it has so widely exhibited the artist's work. MoMA's opening exhibition in 1930 included fifteen paintings by Picasso. He was also a part of Alfred Barr's highly influential survey shows Cubism and Abstract Art (1936) and Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism (1936-37). Although his influence undoubtedly waned in the 1960s, he had by that time become a pop icon, and the public's fascination with his life story continue to fuel interest in his work.


Why Was Pablo Picasso so Important?

Pablo Picasso's most important contribution to the world of art was his co-founding of the Cubist movement. He also contributed significantly to the invention of collage, constructed sculpture and the plastic arts.

Along with Georges Braque, Picasso created cubist painting, a style in which subjects are deconstructed into geometric shapes. Some of Picasso's most famous cubist paintings are "Dora Maar au Chat," "Femme Assise dans un Jardin" and "Guernica." The development of cubism also led to synthetic cubism, in which cut pieces of paper were arranged into compositions. This represented the first use of collage in art.

Picasso was not limited to painting in a cubist style. He also worked in realism, symbolism, neoclassical and surrealism, as well as sculpture. Some of his well-known non-cubist works are "The Old Guitarist," "Portrait of Gertrude Stein," "Boy with a Pipe," "Portrait of Igor Stravinsky" and "Sleeping Peasants."

Picasso's most significant sculpture was the "Chicago Picasso." This work was commissioned by the city and unveiled in 1967. It is done in an abstract Cubist style, and even though it is unclear what it is meant to represent, it has become a Chicago landmark. Picasso was originally supposed to be paid $100,000 for it, but chose to forgo the payment and donate the sculpture as a gift to the people of the city.


5 Things You Didn't Know About Pablo Picasso

A man who reportedly communicated through drawing before learning the ability to speak and whose first word was pencil, the Spanish "piz," certainly seemed fated to become one of the most recognized artists of his century.

Although these particular details may be a bit of exaggerated myth-making (they come from his mother's accounts of his childhood), few similar greats have the same colorful backstories as this artist. Pablo Picasso -- or as he was born, Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso -- died on this day, April 8. In memory:

Here are five stories to color your understanding of the late Cubist founder.

1. It is now believed that Pablo Picasso had a hand in stealing art from the Louvre before he was famous. He was also accused of stealing the "Mona Lisa."

In 1911, authorities discovered that Picasso was in possession of two Iberian statues that were stolen from the Louvre by his known acquaintance, Géry Pieret, four years earlier. (A good friend of Picasso's at the time, Guillaume Apollinaire, employed Pieret as a secretary.) At the time, the artist claimed he had no idea that the statues were stolen, but in recent years it has been argued by art historians such as Silvia Loreti and art history professor Noah Charney, that Picasso had full knowledge of the origins and may have even commissioned the heist. The entire ordeal has gone down in history as the "affaire des statuettes."

In Charney's paper, "Pablo Picasso, art thief," the professor concludes that there is “beyond reasonable doubt” that Picasso requested the theft, partly because the statues aligned specifically with his tastes and he actively hid the works while openly displaying other similar possessions. Charney further explained:

Picasso was a regular visitor to the Louvre and a passionate admirer of Iberian art, which he felt was the root of all Spanish art. It is inconceivable that he would not recognize the statue heads presented him by Géry Pieret . It is also beyond plausibility that Géry Pieret would randomly choose to steal a pair of statues that were so ideally suited to Picasso’s tastes, and then happen to offer them . to the Spaniard.

As the New York Times described, Apollinaire and Picasso were both in a sort of clique around this time. What led to the discovery of Picasso's stolen art was that these two were accused of the bigger crime of stealing the "Mona Lisa." Both were questioned during investigations, and Apollinaire -- who had signed an agreement to "burn down the Louvre" -- accused Picasso of the crime. They were both eventually let go and two years later it was discovered that a former Louvre employee, Vincenzo Peruggia, had hidden Leonardo da Vinci's masterwork in his small apartment.

Images: Pablo Picasso / Commons.

2. When he was only nine years old, Picasso completed his first painting -- "Le Picador."

Picasso's father was a painter himself and taught his son at a young age, leading Picasso to finish "Le Picador" before he was even in the double digits.

A few years after this, Picasso enrolled into the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona, where his father was employed, and ended up renting him a studio. Around this time, Picasso finished his "first large academic canvas" in 1895, which was called, "First Communion."

Apparently, his father vowed to give up his own painting when Picasso was just 13, as the young child had already surpassed him in talent.

Images: Pablo Picasso / Commons.

3. Picasso would carry around a revolver loaded with blanks and fire at people he found dull.

As historian Arthur I. Miller (not the playwright) details in his book, Einstein, Picasso: Space, Time And The Beauty That Causes Havoc, Picasso was inspired by the lifestyle and works of French writer Alfred Jarry. One of many quirks associated with Jarry was his habit of carrying around a loaded revolver.

For a time, Picasso seemed to be mimicking Jarry, carrying around a Browning revolver of his own, filled with blanks. Miller explains:

He would fire at admirers inquiring about the meaning of his paintings, his theory of aesthetics, or anyone daring to insult Cézanne's memory. Like Jarry, Picasso used his Browning as a pataphysical weapon, in a sense playing Père Ubu au natural, disposing of bourgeois boors, morons and philistines.

For the uninitiated, "Père Ubu" was a character in an early play of Jarry's. In the work, Ubu has a conversation with his conscience about how harder sciences like geometry needed to be inserted into conversations of art, mainly because Friedrich Nietzsche had recently declared God dead and artists, Jarry implied, needed to fill the epistemological void.

4. Henri Rousseau was "discovered" by Picasso, who found Rousseau's art so terrible, it was good. Picasso held a party to mock Rousseau's art, but instead accidentally catapulted him to fame.

The artist Henri Rousseau -- also known as Le Douanier (customs officer) Rousseau, as his day job was as a toll collector -- was barely recognized as an artist during most of his life, and, for the most part, only received fleeting recognition from the Parisian avante-garde. Writer Paweł Soszyński details this in length along with a particular joke party and faux-celebration of Rousseau's work that Picasso held early in his own rise to fame, which largely changed the way history remembers the artist behind "The Sleeping Gypsy."

Soszyński describes how Picasso claimed that he'd found Rousseau's artwork in a junk shop as a teenager. This encounter ended up sparking an ironic love of the little known -- and much older -- artist. Eventually Picasso started inviting Rousseau to hang out with his friends, which Rousseau apparently didn't understand was anything but earnest. Rousseau was self-assured in his genius and just wanted an audience.

In 1908, the then wealthy Picasso decided to throw a lavish party in his apartment, bringing in flags and other such accoutrements to capture the vibe of a grand ceremony, like a French Independence Day celebration. Rousseau was invited along with other up-and-coming artists of the day, most of whom were in on the joke, like Gertrude Stein. People drank excessively, more established art critics crashed, and the party became part of art legend.

Thinking that this truly had been an honor, the extremely drunk Rousseau allegedly pulled Picasso aside at the end of the night and said, "You and I are the greatest painters of our time." Rousseau continued, "You in the Egyptian style, I in the modern!"

Image Left: Commons. Image Right: Getty.

5. A Nazi officer raided Picasso's Parisian apartment, and after seeing a photograph of "Guernica," asked the artist if he had done it. Picasso responded "No, you did."

This may be a bit of a tall tale, but as the story goes, Picasso stayed in Paris throughout the Nazi occupation of WWII. During that time, the Gestapo decided to raid his apartment, possibly due to his rumored ties in helping with the Resistance. A Nazi officer viewed a picture of "Guernica" on Picasso's wall and asked, with disgust, “Did you do that?” Picasso's reply was simply, "No, you did."

Another similar story recalls the Nazis offering coal to Picasso to heat his apartment. Picasso's response: "A Spaniard is never cold."

In death, Picasso was remembered as "the titan of 20th century art."

The New York Times obituary began by calling the late artist "the titan of 20th- century art." In his last few years, his work was apparently "less tortured," involving "much more softness," according to a festival curator who was planning on exhibiting over 200 of the artist's last works. Picasso was 91. Four of Picasso's works ("Le Rêve," "Garçon à la pipe," "Nude, Green Leaves and Bust" and "Dora Maar au Chat") still remain in the top 15 most expensive paintings ever sold.


Picasso's father, fortuitously, was an art teacher who quickly realized he had a boy genius on his hands and (almost as quickly) taught his son everything he knew. At the tender age of 14, Picasso passed the entrance exam to the Barcelona School of Fine Arts - in just one day. By the early 1900s, Picasso had moved to Paris, the "capital of the arts." There he found friends in Henri Matisse, Joan Miró and George Braque, and a burgeoning reputation as a painter of note.

Before, and shortly after, moving to Paris, Picasso's painting was in its "Blue Period" (1900-1904), which eventually gave way to his "Rose Period" (1905-1906). It wasn't until 1907, though, that Picasso really raised a commotion in the art world. His painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon marked the beginning of Cubism.

Having caused such a stir, Picasso spent the next 15 years seeing what, exactly, could be done with Cubism (such as putting paper and bits of string in a painting, thus inventing the collage). The Three Musicians (1921), pretty much summed up Cubism for Picasso.

For the rest of his days, no one style could maintain a hold on Picasso. In fact, he was known to use two or more different styles, side by side, within a single painting. One notable exception is his surrealistic painting Guernica (1937), arguably one of the greatest pieces of social protest ever created.

Picasso lived long and, indeed, prospered. He grew fabulously wealthy from his phenomenal output (including erotically themed ceramics), took up with younger and younger women, entertained the world with his outspoken remarks, and painted almost right up until he died at the age of 91.


Pablo Ruyz y Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor and poet.

He is considered a co-founder of cubism, a co-inventor of collage, the inventor of constructed sculpture, and the world's most prolific painter.

In a career spanning 78 years, he amassed 300 sculptures, 13,500 paintings, 34,000 illustrations and 100,000 prints and engravings.

Childhood

He was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Andalusia, to parents José and Maria. His father, who taught drawing, encouraged him to paint, and he picked up the brush when he was 7 years old. Between the ages of 11 and 14, he practiced drawing, illustration and oil painting. He studied at the Fine Arts School in La Coruña, where the family moved in 1891.

His youngest sister, Consuelo, died in January 1895. Later that year, he met a young man who would become a lifelong friend, Manuel Pallarès. The following year, he studied at La Lonja, in Barcelona. In 1897, he was awarded a Gold Medal at the General Fine Arts Exhibition, in Málaga.

Early Years

He enrolled at the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in 1897. Over the course of the following year, he studied landscapes. The village of Horta de Ebro served as his muse.

In 1898, he became a familiar face to those at the Els Quatre Gats café in Barcelona. It was here that he met Carlos Casagemas, as well as many other artists and intellectuals. In 1900, he visited Paris with Casagemas for the first time.

In 1901, Casagemas committed suicide in a Parisian café out of unrequited love for Germaine Pichot. She later featured in several of Picasso's works, including 'The Girls of Avignon' (1907).

Blue Period

He painted 'La Mort de Casagemas' and the blue 'Self-Portrait' in 1901. His muses were patients at the Saint-Lazare Hospital. The same year, he co-founded the 'Arte Jouven' magazine, and held his first exhibition in Paris at the Galeries Vollard. He painted using expressionist and post-impressionist styles. The following year, he produced 'Femme Assise', his first clay sculpture.

In 1904, he moved to Montmartre, to his Bateau-Lavoir studio, and he frequented the 'Au Lapin Agile' café. He met Fernande Olivier, his partner for seven years. He also met André Salmon and Guillaume Apollinaire, life-long friends.

Rose Period

In 1905, he painted his 'Portrait of Gertrude Stein' in his travels to the Netherlands. In 1906, he spent the summer in a remote Catalonian village, Gósol, where he experimented with symbolism. In 1907, Apollinaire introduced him to Georges Braque. In 1907, he was inspired by Salmon to paint his 'Les Demoiselles D'Avignon', which was originally titled 'Le Bordel Philosophique'.

Cubist Period

In 1908, he painted mainly abstract landscapes and figures. In 1909, he returned to Horta de Ebro to spend the summer painting landscapes. On his return to Paris, he moved to Boulevard Clichy. Between 1910 and 1912, he developed a style called Analytic Cubism. He refused to show his work in Paris again until 1916, and held exhibitions in New York and Berlin, instead.

He met and had an affair with Eva Gouel in 1911. The following year, he produced his first collage, 'Nature Morte a la Chaise Cannée', and his first construction, a cardboard guitar. He moved to his new Parisian studio in Boulevard Raspail.

In 1913, his style developed into Synthetic Cubism with the piece 'Homme à la Guitare'. When his father died, he returned to Barcelona. Returning to Paris, he moved his studio to Rue Schoelcher. In 1914, he developed his 'rococo' cubist style using the pointillist technique, as can be seen in his 'Portrait de Jeune Fille'.

Post-belic, Ballet and Classicist Period

Eva Gouel died in 1915. In 1916, Picasso moved to Montrouge. In 1917, he followed the Ballets Russes to Italy, where he met Olga Kokhlova, a Russian ballerina. He used pointillist style to illustrate ballet programmes, and designed the costumes, sets and the stage curtains. He married Olga in July 1918. Shortly after, Apollinaire died. Picasso moved to Rue la Boétie. In 1919, he met Joan Miró. Over the course of the next 2 years, he created more cubist sets and costumes for London and Parisian plays.

In 1921, his son Paulo was born. He painted 'Trois Femmes à la Fontaine' in neoclassical style and 'Trois Musiciens' in cubist style. In 1922, he painted a study of movement, 'Deux Femmes Courant sur la Plage', in classical style. He designed the sets for an 'Antigone' play. In 1923, he spent the summer in Cap d'Antibes, where he produced 'La Flûte de Pan', a large neoclassical composition.

Surrealist Period

The Surrealist group paid tribute to Picasso for his use of fluid cubism in designing the sets for the 'Mercure' ballet in 1924. He spent some of that year in Juan-les-Pins. In 1925, he took a family trip to Monte-Carlo, where he produced sketches of ballerinas. Picasso contributed some works to the Surrealist group's first exhibition. In 1926, he produced some surrealist variations of his cubist guitars.

In 1927, he met Marie-Thérèse Walter, who was 17 at the time. In 1928, he produced the 'Minotaur' collage, as well as two iron sculptures, 'Bust' and 'Figures'. During his stay in Dinard, he painted a series of 'Bathers'. In 1929, he worked on 'Woman in the Garden' and 'Large Nude in Red Armchair'. He returned to Dinard for the summer.

In 1930, he painted the 'Crucifixion'. He then bought the Château de Boisgeloup, and set up his sculpture studio. He moved Marie-Thérèse into his Rue la Boètie studio. In 1931, he produced large plaster sculptures of Marie-Thérèse's face, titled 'Large Busts'. Critic Waldemar-George, once an admirer, criticized his 'modern neurosis' in the 'Formes' magazine. In 1932, he continued to paint and sculpt Marie-Thérèse, and he continued to be criticized in the media. In 1933, he produced engravings at Atelier 17, in Rue Campagne-Première.

In 1934, he produced the 'Woman with Foliage' and 'Woman with Orange' sculptures, as well as the 'Death of Marat' engraving. He met Dora Maar. After his 'Minotauromachy' engravings, he stopped painting until 1936 to write poems. He separated from Olga, but didn't divorce. Marie-Thérèse gave birth to daughter 'Maya', named Maria de la Concepción.

Civil War Period

Picasso lived with Dora Maar in Mougins, where he painted his 'Arlésiennes' portraits. He started producing ceramics after visiting Vallauris. He produced 20 photogram portraits of Dora in cliché verre.

In 1937, he moved to Grands-Augustin Street in Paris. He exhibited his 'Guernica'. He produced the 'Portrait of Dora Maar' series, as well as the 'Man with a Straw Hat' and 'Ice Cream Cone' self-portraits.

In 1939, his mother died in Barcelona. Shortly after, Barcelona was captured by Frankists. In August, Picasso fled to join Maya and Marie-Thérèse in Ronyan, at the Hôtel du Tigre. Upon his return to Paris in 1940, he was refused French nationality. He lived in the Grands-Augustins studio for the rest of the Occupation.

In 1941, he produced a large plaster bust of Dora. In 1942, he painted the large 'The Dawn' canvas. In 1943, he sculpted 'Man with Sheep' and 'Skull'. He separated from Dora. In 1944, he held a reading at his studio as tribute to Max Jacobs, who had been killed in a concentration camp that year. In 1945, he produced portraits of Maurice Thorez in realistic style.

Joie de Vivre

In 1946, he painted the 'Monument to the Spanish Who Died For France'. Françoise Gilot became his lover. He set up a studio at Château Grimaldi. In 1947, he fathered Françoise's son, Claude. The family moved to Golfe-Juan. He focused on ceramics. In 1948, he moved to La Galloise, in Vallauris. He visited Krakow and Auschwitz that year, and then exhibited 149 ceramics. Paloma, his second daughter, was born in 1949.

He won the Stalin Peace Prize in 1950. He painted his large canvas 'Massacre in Korea' the following year. In 1952, he worked on his 'Vanités' series, and in 1953, he started to use acidic colours to produce monochrome pieces for his 'The Reader' theme.

His Legacy

In 1955, Olga died in Cannes, where Picasso bought a villa, La Californie. He began to attend corrida bullfights, and he befriended bullfighter Luis Miguel Dominguìn. In 1956, his work revolved around the 'bathers' theme. In 1958, he started to work with rose chamotte clay and reclaimed wood. In 1958, he bought the Château de Vauvenargues after his UNESCO mural, 'The Fall of Icarus', was completed. In 1959, he wrote 'Trozo de Piel', decorated the Vallauris Chapel, and produced some linoleum cuts. He appeared in a film, 'Testament d'Orphée'.

In 1961, he married Jacqueline Roque, and moved to Mougins, where he celebrated his 80th birthday. He focused on painted sculptures decorated using metal sheet cut-outs. In 1962, he was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize. He produced over 70 portraits of Jacqueline that year. The year 1963 saw the creation of 'The Capture of the Sabines', the 'Painter and His Model' series, and his 'Embraces' series using intaglio and other printmaking techniques. In 1966, he started painting the 'Busts of the Musketeers'. The year after, he refused the Legion of Honour medal, and was evicted from his Grands-Augustins Street studio. He produced 'The Couple', a theme which dominated his work for the rest of his years.

Final Years

Illustrations dominated this period, including etchings, aquatints, and burin engravings. He completed his 347 engravings in 1968. Over the course of the next 2 years, he produced around 165 works. In 1971, he revealed his original cardboard 'Guitar' after donating his metal construction version to be displayed in New York. The year 1972 saw a series of self-portraits and nudes brought to life. In 1973, he died at Notre-Dame-de-Vie in Mougins, hosting a dinner party.


Information on the rapper

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso was born on October 25, 1881. He was a Spanish painter, sculptor, ceramicist, stage designer, and draughtsman who is greatly recognized as one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century and the creator (with Georges Braque) of Cubism.

Art critics and historians typically break Picasso's painting career into distinct periods, such as the "Blue Period", "African-Influenced Period", and "Classical Period". From 1927 onward, Picasso became caught up in a new philosophical and cultural movement known as "Surrealism", the artistic manifestation of which was a product of his own Cubism. Guernica, Picasso's most well-known Surrealist painting, deemed one of the greatest paintings of all time, was completed in 1937. It was inspired by Picasso's anger with the war. Picasso continued to create art and maintain an ambitious schedule in his later years, superstitiously believing that work would keep him alive. He died on April 8, 1973, in Mougins, France.


Watch the video: Γκουέρνικα του Πικάσο Guernica by Pablo Picasso (January 2022).