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March 11, 2014 Day 51 of the Sixth Year - History

March 11, 2014 Day 51 of the Sixth Year - History

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President Barack Obama looks at a sweater with Gap employee Susan Panariello while shopping for his family during a stop at a Gap store in New York, N.Y., March 11, 2014.

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

11:30AM THE PRESIDENT designates the Point Arena-Stornetta Public Lands as a national monument
Oval Office

2:15PM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House en route Joint Base Andrews
South Lawn

2:30PM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews

3:25PM THE PRESIDENT arrives New York
John F. Kennedy International Airport

5:15PM THE PRESIDENT attends a DNC event
Private Residence, New York, New York

7:30PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks and answers questions at a DSCC Event
Private Residence, New York, New York

9:10PM THE PRESIDENT departs New York

John F. Kennedy International Airport

Open Press

10:00PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Joint Base Andrews

10:15PM THE PRESIDENT arrives the White House

South Lawn

History of KFC

KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) was found by Colonel Harland Sanders, an entrepreneur who began selling fried chicken from his roadside restaurant in Corbin, Kentucky, during the Great Depression. Sanders identified the potential of restaurant franchising, and the first "Kentucky Fried Chicken" franchise opened in Salt Lake City, Utah, in 1952. KFC popularized chicken in the fast-food industry, diversifying the market by challenging the established dominance of the hamburger. Branding himself "Colonel Sanders", the founder became a prominent figure of American cultural history, and his image remains widely used in KFC advertising. The company's rapid expansion made it too large for Sanders to manage, so in 1964 he sold the company to a group of investors led by John Y. Brown, Jr. and Jack C. Massey.

KFC was one of the first fast-food chains to expand internationally, opening outlets in Britain, Mexico, and Jamaica by the mid-1960s. Throughout the 1970s and 80s, KFC experienced mixed success domestically, as it went through a series of changes in corporate ownership with little or no experience in the restaurant business. In the early 1970s, KFC was sold to the spirits distributor Heublein, which was taken over by the R. J. Reynolds food and tobacco conglomerate, which later sold the chain to PepsiCo. The chain continued to expand overseas, and in 1987 KFC became the first Western restaurant chain to open in China.

In 1997, PepsiCo spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which changed its name to Yum! Brands in 2002. Yum! has proven to be a more focused owner than Pepsi, and although KFC's number of outlets has declined in the US, the company has continued to grow in Asia, South America, and Africa. The chain has expanded to 18,875 outlets across 118 countries and territories, with 4,563 outlets in China alone, KFC's largest market.


Formation, departure of Bingham, and The Way of the Fist (2005–2009) Edit

Five Finger Death Punch was founded in 2005 [1] [2] by former U.P.O. bassist [1] [3] Zoltan Bathory and drummer Jeremy Spencer, Zoltan deriving the band's name from classic martial arts cinema. [4] Bassist Matt Snell joined in early 2006. [1] [5] Later that year, Bathory contacted former Motograter vocalist Ivan Moody, sending him some of the material the band had recorded and asked him to audition for the vocalist position. [1] Moody flew from his home in Denver, Colorado to Los Angeles and quickly began recording material with the band. [6]

By the end of 2006, their debut album, The Way of the Fist had been recorded and entirely self-produced. [1] The album was recorded with Stevo "Shotgun" Bruno and Mike Sarkisyan and was mixed by guitarist Logan Mader. [1] [7] After searching for a second guitarist, they found Caleb Bingham who played some shows with the band, but was later replaced by Darrell Roberts. [1] [8] Shortly after recording the album, they signed a record deal with Firm Music, a branch of "The Firm". [1] [9] On July 10, 2007, they released an EP, Pre-Emptive Strike exclusively through the American iTunes Store. [1] [10] The album's lead single, "The Bleeding", was released on July 13, 2007. [11] The Way of the Fist was released on July 31, 2007. [12] The album entered the Billboard 200 at number 199 and was certified gold in 2011. [13]

From July 30 – September 2, 2007, the band went on their first major tour cycle as one of the supporting acts on Korn's Family Values Tour. [14] They were also a supporting act of the North American leg of Korn's Bitch We Have a Problem Tour from September 22 – October 27, 2007. [14] They were set to tour with Chimaira and All That Remains from January through March 2008, but due to singer Moody developing cysts on his vocal cords they were forced to pull out. [15] He made a full recovery and they began to tour again. [16] They supported Disturbed on their Indestructible US Tour from April through May 2008. [17]

The Way of the Fist was re-released on May 13, 2008, with 3 bonus tracks. [18] One of the bonus tracks, "Never Enough" was released as the album's second single on July 15, 2008. [19] Later that year they were a part of the 2008 Mayhem Festival playing the Jägermeister Stage. [20] The third single from The Way of the Fist, "Stranger Than Fiction" was released on September 17, 2008. [19] The Way of the Fist was released through Spinefarm Records in Canada on November 4, 2008, [21] and in Europe on January 19, 2009. [22] In January 2009, Darrell Roberts was rumored to have been fired [23] the split was confirmed a few days later, and Roberts was replaced by guitarist Jason Hook. [24] They ended their support for their first album playing the main stage at the 2009 Download Festival. [25]

Departure of Roberts and War Is the Answer (2009–2010) Edit

In May 2009, Five Finger Death Punch announced their second studio album, War Is the Answer. [26] The album was produced by Kevin Churko and mixed by Randy Staub. [27] The album debuted at number 7 on the Billboard 200 [28] and has been certified platinum by the RIAA. [29] The first single from the album, "Hard to See", was released on July 21, 2009. [30] To promote War Is the Answer, Five Finger Death Punch embarked on "The Shock and Raw" US Tour. Main support on the tour was provided by Shadows Fall, with additional support coming from Otep and 2Cents. [31] Upon completing the US run of the tour, Five Finger Death Punch then brought the Shock and Raw tour to Europe, finishing off with a run of dates in the UK. Main support for these dates was again Shadows Fall, and opening acts for the UK portion of the tour were Rise To Remain and Magnacult. [32]

The second single from War Is the Answer, "Walk Away", was released on November 2, 2009. [1] The album also spawned two UK-only singles, "Dying Breed", released on November 16, 2009, [33] and "No One Gets Left Behind", released on March 8, 2010. [34] During March 2010, Five Finger Death Punch traveled to Iraq and played 10 shows for the United States troops. [35] The band's cover of Bad Company's self-titled song was released as the fifth single from War Is the Answer on May 17, 2010. [36] On their way to perform at Rock am Ring and Rock im Park Zoltan Bathory, Matt Snell and Jeremy Spencer were detained by German police for alleged international weapons violations. After recognizing the event as a misunderstanding, German police released the band members and they appeared at both Rock im Park on June 4, 2010, and Rock am Ring June 6, 2010, as scheduled. [37]

Five Finger Death Punch also played the Maurice Jones Main Stage at the 2010 Download Festival on June 12, 2010. [38] While playing the song "Dying Breed", their set was cut due to too many people crowd surfing up to the stage. [39] They were allowed to play one final song, "The Bleeding". [40] They played the main stage at Mayhem Festival 2010 with Korn, Rob Zombie and Lamb of God from July 10 until August 14, 2010. [41] On August 17, 2010, they performed the songs "Bad Company" and "Hard to See" on the ABC show Jimmy Kimmel Live!. [42] On September 16, 2010, The band released "Far from Home" as the sixth single from War Is the Answer. [43] They supported Godsmack on their "The Oracle 2010" tour from October 3 – November 4, 2010. [44] [45] The song, "Dying Breed" was featured on the soundtrack for Namco Bandai Games' remake of Splatterhouse, released on November 23, 2010. [46]

Departure of Snell and American Capitalist (2010–2012) Edit

The band began to record their third studio album in November 2010 [47] at The Hideout studios in Las Vegas, Nevada. Bassist Matt Snell departed from the band in December 2010, [48] and in June 2011, Chris Kael was announced as Snell's replacement. [49] The band's third album, titled American Capitalist, was released October 11, 2011. [50] [51] Production for the album was handled again by Kevin Churko. [52] The first single from American Capitalist, entitled "Under and Over It", was released on July 27, 2011, [53] following a music video in September 2011. [54] [55] In support of the album, Five Finger Death Punch embarked on their "Share the Welt" tour from October 16 – December 14, 2011 with support from All That Remains, Hatebreed and Rains and their "Furious and Deadly" tour from March 23 – April 12, 2012 with support from Soulfly, Windowpane, and Persist. [56] The song "Back for More" is included on the soundtrack for the video game Madden NFL 12. [57] "Back for More" was released as a digital single on September 13, 2011. [58] "Remember Everything" was released as the second official single for American Capitalist in November 2011, [59] with a music video following in February 2012. [60] "Coming Down" was released as the third official single from American Capitalist in April 2012, [61] with a music video, directed by Nick Peterson, following in June 2012. [62] The song also won the band an Independent Music Award in 2013 for Best Metal/Hardcore Song. [63]

From July 13 to August 28, 2012, Five Finger Death Punch took part in Metal Hammer's "Trespass America Festival" with support from Battlecross, God Forbid, Emmure, Pop Evil, Trivium and Killswitch Engage. [64]

The Wrong Side of Heaven and the Righteous Side of Hell (2013–2014) Edit

On February 15, 2013, Five Finger Death Punch stated on Facebook that they were working on a fourth album, due in the summer. [65] On February 28, the band posted a picture on Facebook of Moody recording vocals for the album. On March 12, an update video was posted to YouTube. [66] On March 18, the band was announced to be playing Mayhem Festival 2013. On March 18, Five Finger Death Punch posted a promotional video for their next tour with a new song "Here to Die". [67]

On May 1, 2013, the band announced the release of their next two studio albums collectively titled The Wrong Side of Heaven and the Righteous Side of Hell with Volume 1 being released on July 30, and Volume 2 following on November 19. [68] [69] [70] During the fifth annual Golden Gods Awards, Five Finger Death Punch performed a new song with Rob Halford of Judas Priest entitled "Lift Me Up". [71] [72] The song was released as a single on May 14. [73]

On June 6, Five Finger Death Punch revealed the artwork for The Wrong Side of Heaven and the Righteous Side of Hell, Volume 1 and also released a snippet of future single "Dot Your Eyes" [74] Volume 1 reached the No. 2 position on the Billboard 200 with 113,000 copies sold in its first week, making it the band's most successful debut to date. [75] The Wrong Side of Heaven and the Righteous Side of Hell Volume 1 has sold over 210,000 copies as of August 2013 [update] . [76]

On September 9, 2013, the band released a new single, "Battle Born", in anticipation of their fifth studio album The Wrong Side of Heaven and the Righteous Side of Hell, Volume 2. It sold 77,000 copies in its first week, and once again landed in the No. 2 position on the Billboard 200. [77] [78] [79]

On August 11, 2014, Five Finger Death Punch released a video for the song "Wrong Side of Heaven". The video is about homeless veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury and depression after serving in the military, and not receiving the help they need for their illnesses. [80] [81]

Got Your Six (2015–2016) Edit

On December 12, 2013, Five Finger Death Punch revealed in a radio interview that they had already begun working on a sixth studio album. [82]

On January 14, 2015, Five Finger Death Punch announced US Spring headline tour dates from April 25 to May 9, 2015 and their intention to enter the studio to write and record a new album. [83]

On May 2, 2015, the band released the title of their sixth album, Got Your Six as well as a teaser for a new song titled "Ain't My Last Dance" on their official Facebook page. [84] The album, which was slated for release on August 28, 2015, was later pushed back to September 4. [85] [86]

On May 19, 2015, the band announced a co-headlining North American Tour with Papa Roach to promote the upcoming album and were accompanied by In This Moment as special guests with support by From Ashes to New for the tour. [87] [88] [89] The band also performed on the main stage as part of Download Festival 2015. [90] [91]

A Decade of Destruction, And Justice for None, and departure of Spencer (2016–2019) Edit

On April 27, 2016, Billboard reported that Five Finger Death Punch's record label Prospect Park had filed a lawsuit against the band on April 21, 2016 for breaching their contract. [92] The basis of the claim cites that the band began working on a new album without Prospect Park's consent and will be working with Rise Records. In a recent interview, vocalist Ivan Moody has said he will be completing the current tour and leave the band at the end of 2017. [93] The next day however, an announcement was published on the official site of FFDP, where it was revealed, that rumors about Ivan's departure are false. According to the announcement, the vocalist plans to start a side project beside Five Finger Death Punch, which does not mean he has plans on leaving. [94] [95]

However, during a concert in the Netherlands, Moody did not show up to perform the first song, which was sung by Tommy Vext, with Moody saying he was running "a little bit late". Vext also sang a second song during the set later in the evening while Moody walked off stage. During the show all of the members left the stage for long periods on several occasions, and Hook also threw his guitar down and walked offstage at one point. During the set, Moody said that "there is no other singer for Five Finger Death Punch", and then later said "This is my last show with Five Finger Death Punch" before making a slit-throat gesture. [96] Bathory shortly after the show tweeted that the events that transpired were "not a publicity stunt." [97]

The day after the show in Tilburg, Netherlands, the band announced a headline European tour with In Flames and Of Mice & Men in late 2017. [98] Later that same day, the band released a statement addressing what happened at the show via their Facebook page, stating that bands that tour as heavily as they do will "inevitably have a few derailments, but the train always keeps on moving", implying that all shows would proceed as planned and that Moody would remain as the band's frontman. [99] Ivan Moody subsequently checked himself into rehab and sat out the remainder of the tour. Tommy Vext filled in for Moody while he sought treatment. [100] [101] On August 19, Ivan Moody returned to the stage at the Illinois State Fair, although just days prior it was still unknown if he would be taking the stage. [102] [103]

In December 2017, it was announced that the band was working on their seventh studio album. [104] The album, And Justice for None was released May 18, 2018. [105] On December 21, 2017, the band released a video for their cover of "Gone Away" by The Offspring. The cover song was featured on Five Finger Death Punch's greatest hits album, A Decade of Destruction. [106] [107] On April 5, 2018, the band released "Fake" as the lead single from And Justice for None. [108] [109] On April 20, 2018, a second single was released, titled "Sham Pain". [110] [111] A third single "When the Seasons Change" was released on May 4, 2018. [112] [113]

For a Fall 2018 tour with Breaking Benjamin, Charlie Engen replaced Jeremy Spencer to allow him to undergo back surgery. On December 18, it was announced that Spencer had departed the band permanently. [114] In June 2019, it was announced that Jeremy Spencer has continued the band's support of first responders and was sworn in as a reserve police officer in Indiana. [115]

Five Finger Death Punch have also worked with Brantley Gilbert, Brian May of Queen, and Kenny Wayne Shepherd to re-record a new version of Sheperd's song "Blue on Black". The proceeds from the recording support The Gary Sinise Foundation. While a cover of the song had already appeared on And Justice for None, this new version merged Sheperd's blues rock, Gilbert's country, May's classic rock and Five Finger Death Punch's mainstream rock styles. [116]

F8, departure of Hook, and A Decade of Destruction: Volume 2 (2019–2021) Edit

On May 9, 2019, the band released a video announcing a "new record in the making". [117] The album, F8 was released on February 28, 2020. [118] [119] The album's lead single, "Inside Out", was released on December 2, 2019. [120] "A Little Bit Off" was released as the second single in June 2020. [121] Both songs topped the Billboard Mainstream Rock songs. [122] On February 4, 2020, it was announced that lead guitarist Jason Hook was forced to miss the remaining shows of the European tour due to health issues. Andy James was named as substitute lead guitarist for the rest of the tour. [123] It was confirmed on October 12, 2020, that Hook officially left the band, [124] [125] with James replacing him permanently. [125]

Ninth studio album and re-recording of The Way of the Fist (2021–present) Edit

Five Finger Death Punch currently plans on recording their next album, to be released in 2022. They will also make a 15th anniversary re-recording of their debut album, The Way of the Fist. [126]

Five Finger Death Punch's musical style has generally been regarded as heavy metal, [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] groove metal , [131] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] thrash metal , [139] [134] [136] [140] alternative metal, [141] [142] [143] [144] hard rock [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] nu metal, [150] [151] and arena rock. [119] Thom Jurek of AllMusic wrote that Five Finger Death Punch's "instantly recognizable sound is comprised of equal parts melodic and meaty guitar riffs, fat vamps, catchy hooks, tight, flashy solos, and hard-grooving bass and drums". [144] Bathory described Five Finger Death Punch as "a straight-up heavy metal band with a hint of thrash metal—maybe a hint of the Euro stuff in there" and then said, "that's pretty much what we are". [152] Five Finger Death Punch vocalist Ivan Moody's vocals are usually singing and screaming. [144] The band has released successful ballads as well. [153]

Today's Events in Music History

    Styne, Comden and Green's musical "Subways Are For Sleeping" closes at St James Theater, NYC, after 205 performances

Event of Interest

1970 Rocker and singer Chubby Checker arrested for marijuana possession

    "Cyrano" closes at Palace Theater NYC after 49 performances "Sugar" closes at Majestic Theater NYC after 506 performances

Event of Interest

1975 Rocker Alice Cooper falls off stage in Vancouver, breaks 6 ribs

    "My Sharona" single released by The Knack "This Was Burlesque" opens at Princess Theater NYC for 28 performances

Event of Interest

1990 Police find marijuana at Chuck Berry's home

Music Recording

1991 "Weird Al" Yankovic records "Babalu Music"

    "Tartuffe: Born Again" closes at Circle in Sq NYC after 29 performances Glastonbury Festival 2000 in Pilton, England opens: The Chemical Brothers, Travis, and David Bowie headline other performers include G. Love & Special Sauce, David Gray, Willie Nelson, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, and Macy Gray

Event of Interest

2004 Bob Dylan accepts honorary doctorate of music degree from the University of St Andrews, Scotland's oldest university

President Truman makes first transcontinental television broadcast

On September 4, 1951, President Harry S. Truman’s opening speech before a conference in San Francisco is broadcast across the nation, marking the first time a television program was broadcast from coast to coast. The speech focused on Truman’s acceptance of a treaty that officially ended America’s post-World War II occupation of Japan.

The broadcast, via then-state-of-the-art microwave technology, was picked up by 87 stations in 47 cities, according to CBS. In his remarks, Truman lauded the treaty as one that would help 𠇋uild a world in which the children of all nations can live together in peace.” As communism was threatening to spread throughout Pacific Rim nations such as Korea and Vietnam, the U.S. recognized the need to create an ally in a strong, democratic Japan.

Since the end of World War II in 1945, Japan had been occupied and closely monitored by the American military under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur. By 1951, six years later, Truman considered the task of rebuilding Japan complete. Truman praised the Japanese people’s willingness to go along with the plan and expressed his pride in having helped to rebuild Japan as a democracy. Gone was the old militaristic police state in its place was a country with a new constitution, unions for protecting the rights of laborers and voting rights for women, among many other positive changes.

51 Historical Facts That Sound Like Huge Lies But Are Actually True

1. The Ottoman Empire's Sultan Ibrahim I had 280 of his concubines drowned in the ocean after one of them slept with another man.

2. In medieval times people were put to death for being witches. One anthropologist conjectures as many as 600,000 "witches" lost their lives.

3. Mexican General Santa Anna had an elaborate state funeral for his amputated leg.

4. Tens of thousands of baby girls were abandoned each year in China because of the country's one-child policy.

5. Before the mid-19th century dentures were commonly made with teeth pulled from the mouths of dead soldiers.

7. Ice age Britons used skulls of the dead as cups.

8. After Pope Gregory IX associated cats with devil worship, cats throughout Europe were exterminated in droves.

9. This sudden lack of cats led to the spread of disease because infected rats ran free. The most devastating of these diseases, the Bubonic Plague, killed 100 million people.

10. The Aztecs made human sacrifices to the gods. In 1487, at the dedication of the temple in Tenochtitlan, 20,000 people were put to death.

11. The Mayans also made sacrifices. The most common involved pulling a still-beating heart out of a victim's chest.

12. In the 13th century 30,000 children went on what is known as the Children's Crusade. They were convinced God would allow them to take back the Holy Land without incident, but most died on the journey or were sold into slavery.

13. In ancient Egypt, servants were smeared with honey in order to attract flies away from the pharaoh.

14. Upon dying, some pharaohs were sealed into their tombs alongside their living servants, pets, and concubines.

15. The Romans used human urine as mouthwash.

16. In 1788 the Austrian army attacked itself and lost 10,000 men.

17. Before becoming pope, Pius II wrote a popular erotic book, The Tale of Two Lovers.

18. People were buried alive so often in the 19th century that inventors patented safety coffins that would give the "dead" the ability to alert those above ground if they were still alive.

19. Approximately 750,000 men died in the Civil War, which was more than 2.5% of America's population at the time.

20. In Medieval times the accused often faced a "trial by ordeal," where they were forced to stick their arm into a vat of boiling water. If their arm emerged unscathed, it was believed God protected them, thus proving their innocence.

21. Animals were put on trial in medieval times and routinely sentenced to death.

22. Beginning in 1909 (and continuing into the 1970s), the Australian government instituted a policy of removing Aboriginal children from their parents and teaching them to reject their Aboriginality.

23. In the 1970s Pol Pot's communist regime brainwashed thousands of Cambodian children into becoming soldiers who committed mass murders and other atrocities.

24. Japanese samurais disemboweled themselves with their sword (an act known as seppuko) when in danger of being captured.

25. New research suggests that 15–20 million people were murdered or imprisoned by the Nazis during the Holocaust, much more than previously believed.

26. Joseph Stalin, the dictator of the USSR from 1929–1953, is believed to have killed between 20-60 million people.

27. Between 1525 and 1866, 12.5 million Africans were kidnapped and sold into slavery in the United States, Caribbean, and South America.

28. The introduction of Europeans to the New World saw the Native American population drop from an estimated 12 million in 1500 to barely 237,000 in 1900.

29. In the 19th century a popular medicine for kids, "Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup," included morphine.

30. In 1917, Margaret Sanger was jailed for one month for establishing the first birth control clinic.

31. In Venice during the Renaissance there was a case where a rapist was given the choice of going to jail for six months, paying a fine, or marrying his victim. He chose marriage.

32. Chairman Mao Zedong killed 45 million people during China's "Great Leap Forward" from 1958–1962.

33. Peter the Great executed his wife's lover, then forced her to keep her lover's head in a jar of alcohol in her bedroom.

34. In 16th-century Canada, women drank a potion with beaver testicles ground into it as a form of contraception.

35. Genghis Khan killed 40 million people across Asia and Europe.

36. In the 16th and 17th century wealthy Europeans ate corpses thinking they'd cure them of ailments.

37. They even ate the remains of Egyptian mummies, which tomb raiders risked their lives to steal.

38. In the 15th century Romanian ruler Vlad the Impaler impaled 20,000 Ottoman Turks on long, sharp poles on the banks of the Danube.

39. Vlad also enjoyed sopping up his enemies' blood with bread and eating it. This disturbing practice, along with his family name of Dracula and birthplace of Transylvania, inspired Bram Stoker's Dracula.

40. African-American men were not deemed equal members of the Mormon Church until 1978.

41. South Africans gave gay and lesbian soldiers sex changes in an attempt to root out homosexuality in their army.

42. In early Rome a father could legally kill anyone in his family.

43. After finding a 36,000 year old steppe bison preserved in the ice, Alaskan zoology professor R. Dale Guthrie and his team ate some of its flesh. Guthrie said "the meat was well aged but still a little tough."

44. Child killer and rapist Pedro Lopez, known as "The Monster of the Andes," was convicted in 1983 of killing 110 young girls (though he confessed to killing 300).

45. Lopez was released in 1998 after serving Ecuador's maximum sentence of 20 years. His whereabouts are presently unknown.

46. The Roman Emperor Commodus collected all the disabled and little people he could find and ordered them to fight each other to the death with meat cleavers in the Colosseum.

47. Prior to the 1960s tobacco companies ran physician-endorsed ads that suggested smoking had health benefits.

48.Soviet biologist Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov attempted to impregnate a chimpanzee with human sperm, but failed in his quest to make a "humanzee."

49. In 755 A.D. the An Lushan rebellion against the Chinese Tang Dynasty resulted in 36 million deaths, or one-sixth of the entire world population.

50. In colonial America pregnant women didn't receive painkillers during delivery because pain was considered God's punishment for Eve's eating the forbidden fruit.


BE = Buddhist Era. Year 1 of the Buddhist Era calendar is the year of the Buddha's Parinibbana (death and final release), which occurred in the Buddha's eightieth year (480 BCE according to the "historical" timeline 544 BCE by tradition).

The actual date of the Buddha's birth is unknown. According to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha's birth took place in 624 BCE, although some recent estimates place the Buddha's birth much later &mdash perhaps as late as 448 BCE <1>. 560 BCE is one commonly accepted date for the Buddha's birth, and the "historical" date for that event that I adopt here.

Events in the timeline prior to -250 CE are shown with two CE dates: the date based on the "traditional" nativity of 624 BCE, followed by the date based on the "historical" date of 560 BCE. After -250 CE the "historical" date is dropped, since these dates are more appropriate only in discussions of earlier events.

To calculate the CE date corresponding to an event in the Buddhist traditional calendar, subtract 544 years from the BE date. The BE dates of well-documented historical events (particularly those in the twentieth century) may be off by one year, since the CE and BE calendars start their years on different months (January and May, respectively).

2. CE = Common Era. Year 1 of the Common Era corresponds with the year 1 AD (Anno Domini) in the Christian calendar. -1 CE (or 1 BCE &mdash "Before the Common Era") corresponds with the year 1 BC ("Before Christ"). By convention there is no year zero the day after 31 December 1 BCE is 1 January 1 CE. 3. Events of the last few decades are still too recent to claim any historical significance.

What is Area 51?

Area 51, officially named the Nevada Test and Training Range at Groom Lake, is a high-security open training range for the U.S. Air Force in southern Nevada &mdash though the site is still very secretive.

The public found out that Area 51 officially existed in August 2013 after Dr. Jeffrey T. Richelson, a senior fellow at the George Washington University National Security Archive, submitted a Freedom of Information Act Request in 2005 for information on the CIA’s Lockheed U-2 plane reconnaissance program, the secret construction and testing of spy planes used to gather intelligence.

The request forced the CIA to declassify documents on the history of the U-2 and A-12 OXCART program and the military base where the planes were constructed and tested &mdash Area 51.

&ldquoThere certainly was &mdash as you would expect &mdash no discussion of little green men here,&rdquo Richelson, who died in 2017, told The New York Times in 2013. &ldquoThis is a history of the U-2. The only overlap is the discussion of the U-2 flights and U.F.O. sightings, the fact that you had these high-flying aircraft in the air being the cause of some of the sightings.&rdquo

Malcolm Byrne, Deputy Director and Director of Research at the National Security Archive, tells TIME that Richelson essentially solved the mystery surrounding Area 51 indirectly. “I don’t think Richelson was going after Area 51 specifically, it’s just that as often happens in these things, there’s serendipity and so material gets released that has things of interest for other people.”

Israel-Gaza conflict: 50-day war by numbers

As discussions for a long-term truce between Israel and Hamas continue in Cairo, Gaza is picking up the pieces of a 50-day war that left more than 2,200 people dead.

People are beginning to leave refugee camps and UN shelters amid hopes that a ceasefire declared yesterday will hold but many have no home to return to.

More than 20,000 homes are estimated to have been rendered uninhabitable by shelling and air strikes that the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) claimed targeted only “terrorist” sites used by Hamas for military purposes.

Just a day before the peace deal was struck, bombing toppled one of Gaza’s tallest buildings, the 15-storey Basha Tower full of apartments and offices, after days of strikes against shopping complexes and high rises.

The UN estimates that more than 20,000 homes have been reduced to rubble or rendered uninhabitable and workers are racing to avert humanitarian crisis by fixing damaged water mains and power lines.

According to the United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA), more than 300,000 Gazans had been sheltering in its schools on Tuesday and up to 500,000 people have been displaced by the conflict.

Pierre Krähenbühl, UNRWA Commissioner-General, appealed for £178 million ($295 million) of international aid towards its recovery operations.

He said: “During a week when children should have been starting their new school year, they are instead facing prolonged insecurity, fear and suffering.

“To make matters worse, the extensive destruction caused by the conflict means that many Palestinians will have no home to return to once hostilities have ended.

The Year 1951

What Happened in 1951 Key Technology, Popular Culture and News Stories include 22nd Amendment is ratified, New Jersey Turnpike, First Color TV Pictures broadcast from Empire State Building, Festival of Britain opens, Disc Jockey Alan Freed coins the term Rock N Roll,

1951 Unemployment dipped to 3.3% in the US and new roads were built to take the ever increasing numbers of cars including the New Jersey Turnpike. Children were given more than any other time in previous history with guitar lessons and sets of Encyclopedias to improve their minds . The average family income was $3,700 per year and people had money to spend so cars became more luxurious and had more powerful engines with options for two tone paint, during this time things like turn signals were still an extra and most drivers still used hand signals to tell other drivers which way they were turning. Television continued to grow with popular programmes like "I Love Lucy" and the first tests for Color Television Pictures were broadcast from Empire State Building on June 25th . Europe continued to export many cars to the US including Volkswagen's and Austin's.

Cost of Living 1951 - How Much things cost

Yearly Inflation Rate USA 7.88%

Yearly Inflation Rate UK 9.5%

Average Cost of new house $9.000.00

Average wages per year - $3,510.00

Cost of a gallon of Gas 19 cents

Average Cost of a new car - $1,500.00

LB of Hamburger Meat - 50 cents

Baby Diapers ( Cotton ) - From $2.79

Children's Tricycle - From $14.00

Average House Price UK - 2,115 -

Vintage 1950s Pepsi Cola Truck
Price $1.59
Plastic replica of the latest model of Pepsi Cola delivery truck. Body has two shelves, holding six miniature dummy plastic cases of Pepsi Cola with molded-in bottles. Pepsi Cola markings on top of truck, also the familiar Pepsi Cola bottle cap at rear and sides.

United States -- Nevada Nuclear Test

During January the United States government began nuclear bomb testing at a test site in Nevada. After the initial development of the atomic bomb during the mid-1940's the U.S. had moved its test sites off of the country's mainland and began using islands in the Pacific. Due to logistical and safety concerns the U.S. Government decided to move the testing back to the mainland and chose a large portion of mountainous and desert land in Nevada, located about 65 miles away from Las Vegas, as their site. The first series of tests to be held at this new site was named Operation Ranger. Initially, many tests were atmospheric tests but because of the adverse health effects that were observed all of the tests were moved underground by 1962. A total of 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 1992.

U.S. - Operation Greenhouse

The first thermonuclear weapon test takes place at the Enewetak Atoll during Operation Greenhouse.

The United States performs the first thermonuclear weapon test during May as a part of "Operation Greenhouse." The test was conducted at the Enewetak Atoll and the blast, named "George," was the first successful small-scale demonstration of a non-weaponized hydrogen bomb. The test confirmed to scientists working on the project that the foundation of their design worked and it would be possible to create a large-scale hydrogen bomb. The U.S. would go on to to test the first full-scale thermonuclear hydrogen bomb during November News Events of 1952 with "Ivy Mike" in "Operation Ivy."

United States -- Direct Dial Coastal Call

The first direct-dial coast to coast telephone call was made during November . The call took place between the Mayor of Englewood, New Jersey, M. Leslie Denning, and the Mayor of Alameda, California, Frank Osborne. It took about 18 seconds to connect the call and it was placed using AT&T’s direct distance dialing system which did not use an operator to connect the call. This new method utilized a ten digit phone number which included the three-digit area code system that had been implemented in the late 1940s.

United States -- "I Love Lucy"

The popular television show "I Love Lucy" premieres on CBS.

The classic television show "I Love Lucy" debuted on the CBS network on October 15th . The show starred comedienne Lucille Ball as the titular Lucy Ricardo, Cuban entertainer Desi Arnaz as Lucy's husband Ricky, with Vivian Vance and William Frawley as their goofy landlords Fred and Ethel Mertz, and it revolved around Lucy's comical antics. Arnaz and Ball were a real-life husband and wife and the show was based off a popular radio series that Ball had previously starred in. "I Love Lucy" was one of the first scripted television shows to be filmed using three different cameras and it was unusual that it was filmed in Hollywood using a live audience rather than in New York using a laugh track. The show was a huge success and was nominated for and won many Emmy awards while it aired. It ended in May of 1957 but remained popular in reruns and it is still regularly aired on cable TV.

United States - Development of Birth Control Pill

1. Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States in 1916 and Sanger was arrested for distributing contraceptives in less than two weeks after its opening.

2. During the 1930s, breakthroughs in steroid and hormone research lead to the discovery that high doses of certain steroid hormones can stop ovulation.

3. Russell Marker, an organic chemistry professor at Penn State, developed a process using plant steroids to create progesterone in 1939.

4. Marker co-founded the Syntex company in Mexico during 1944 but leaves the company in 1945 and is replaced by George Rosenkranz.

5. Margaret Sanger meets Gregory Pincus, a hormone researcher, in 1951 and helps him secure a grant from Planned Parenthood to research hormonal contraceptives.

6. On October 15, 1951, Dr. Carl Djerassi and student Luis Miramontes, under the direction of George Rosenkranz, successfully synthesize progestin norethisterone while working at Syntex. The hormone was a key ingredient in the creation of the birth control pill and Miramontes was credited with completing the final step in the synthesizing process.

7. Frank Colton first synthesizes noretynodrel in 1952 at G.D. Searle and Company, another key ingredient in the creation of the pill.

8. In 1953 Gregory Pincus receives a dramatic increase in funding for his research from Katharine McCormick. He begins human trials of a birth control pill in 1956 in Puerto Rico.

9. The FDA approves "Envoid" in 1957 for certain treatments and in 1960 the FDA approves it for use as an oral contraceptive pill.

10. In 1965, the Supreme Court rules in Griswold v. Connecticut, allowing married couples in all states access to birth control.

11. In 1972, the Supreme Court rules in Eisenstadt v. Baird, allowing unmarried people access to birth control.

Daily Readings

Reading I

In the beginning, when God created the heavens and the earth,
the earth was a formless wasteland, and darkness covered the abyss,
while a mighty wind swept over the waters.

Then God said,
"Let there be light,"" and there was light.
God saw how good the light was.
God then separated the light from the darkness.
God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night."
Thus evening came, and morning followed—the first day.

Then God said,
"Let there be a dome in the middle of the waters,
to separate one body of water from the other."
And so it happened:
God made the dome,
and it separated the water above the dome from the water below it.
God called the dome "the sky."
Evening came, and morning followed—the second day.

Then God said,
"Let the water under the sky be gathered into a single basin,
so that the dry land may appear."
And so it happened:
the water under the sky was gathered into its basin,
and the dry land appeared.
God called the dry land "the earth, "
and the basin of the water he called "the sea."
God saw how good it was.
Then God said,
"Let the earth bring forth vegetation:
every kind of plant that bears seed
and every kind of fruit tree on earth
that bears fruit with its seed in it."
And so it happened:
the earth brought forth every kind of plant that bears seed
and every kind of fruit tree on earth
that bears fruit with its seed in it.
God saw how good it was.
Evening came, and morning followed—the third day.

Then God said:
"Let there be lights in the dome of the sky,
to separate day from night.
Let them mark the fixed times, the days and the years,
and serve as luminaries in the dome of the sky,
to shed light upon the earth."
And so it happened:
God made the two great lights,
the greater one to govern the day,
and the lesser one to govern the night
and he made the stars.
God set them in the dome of the sky,
to shed light upon the earth,
to govern the day and the night,
and to separate the light from the darkness.
God saw how good it was.
Evening came, and morning followed—the fourth day.

Then God said,
"Let the water teem with an abundance of living creatures,
and on the earth let birds fly beneath the dome of the sky."
And so it happened:
God created the great sea monsters
and all kinds of swimming creatures with which the water teems,
and all kinds of winged birds.
God saw how good it was, and God blessed them, saying,
"Be fertile, multiply, and fill the water of the seas
and let the birds multiply on the earth."
Evening came, and morning followed—the fifth day.

Then God said,
"Let the earth bring forth all kinds of living creatures:
cattle, creeping things, and wild animals of all kinds."
And so it happened:
God made all kinds of wild animals, all kinds of cattle,
and all kinds of creeping things of the earth.
God saw how good it was.
Then God said:
"Let us make man in our image, after our likeness.
Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea,
the birds of the air, and the cattle,
and over all the wild animals
and all the creatures that crawl on the ground."
God created man in his image
in the image of God he created him
male and female he created them.
God blessed them, saying:
"Be fertile and multiply
fill the earth and subdue it.
Have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air,
and all the living things that move on the earth."
God also said:
"See, I give you every seed-bearing plant all over the earth
and every tree that has seed-bearing fruit on it to be your food
and to all the animals of the land, all the birds of the air,
and all the living creatures that crawl on the ground,
I give all the green plants for food."
And so it happened.
God looked at everything he had made, and he found it very good.
Evening came, and morning followed—the sixth day.
Thus the heavens and the earth and all their array were completed.
Since on the seventh day God was finished
with the work he had been doing,
he rested on the seventh day from all the work he had undertaken.