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USS Kwajalein - History

USS Kwajalein - History

Kwajalein

(CVE: 98: dp. 7,800; 1. 512'33"; b. 65'; ew. 108'11"; dr. 22'6"; s. 19 k.; cpl. 860; a. 1 5", 16 40mm., 20 20mm.; cl. Anzio )

Kwajalein (CV~98), formerly Bucareli Bay, was launched 4 May 1944, by the Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash., under a Maritime Commission contract, sponsored by Mrs. Rudolf L. Johnson; acquired by the Navy 7 June 1944, and commissioned the same day, Comir. R. C. Warrack in command.

After shakedown along the West Coast, Kwajalein cleared San Pedro 19 July 1944, bound for Espiritu Santo with passengers and a cargo of fuel and planes. Arriving 3 August, she sailed 4 days later to transport aircraft to Guam and pick up salvaged Japanese equipment for intelligence studies in tbe United States.

Following repairs at San Diego, Kwajalein got underway 7 October for operations as replenishment carrier. She loaded combat-ready aircraft at Manus and sailed for Enivvetok 5 November to replenish the carriers of Task Force 38 as they prepared for raids on Manila and the Visayas. Continuing operations from Ulithi, Kwajalein furnished the big carriers with the planes needed to drive the Japanese out of the Philippines. During January 1945, replacement aircraft roared from her decks to Task Force 38 flat tops for strikes on enemy air bases on Formosa and the China coast. Kwajalein returned San Diego 23 February for overhaul and additional aircraft before resuming operations 9 March.

From March to August Kwajalein carried aircraft on three cruises from Pearl Harbor to the western Pactfic keeping carrier-based air groups at full strength for the massive carrier raids on the Japanese home islands. With the cessation of hostilities 14 August 1945, the carrier vas assigned the task of returning Pactfic veterans to the United States. She made four cruises to the Pactfic Islands before arriving San Pedro 2 February 1946, from her ffnal "Magic-Carpet" mission. On 23 April Kwajalein
cleared San Pablo Bay for Mukilteo, Wash., arriving there 3 days later. She decommissioned at Tacoma, Wash., 16 August 1946, and joined the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Her name was struck from the Navy List 1 April 1960, and she was scrapped in Japan the following year.

Kwajalein received two battle stars for World War II service.


After shakedown along the West Coast, Kwajalein cleared San Pedro, California on 19 July 1944, bound for Espiritu Santo with passengers and a cargo of fuel and planes. Arriving on 3 August, she sailed 4 days later to transport aircraft to Guam and pick up salvaged Japanese equipment for intelligence studies in the United States.

Following repairs at San Diego, Kwajalein got underway on 7 October for operations as replenishment carrier. She loaded combat-ready aircraft at Manus Island and sailed for Eniwetok on 5 November to replenish the carriers of Task Force 38 (TF 38) as they prepared for raids on Manila and the Visayas. Continuing operations from Ulithi, Kwajalein furnished the big carriers with the planes needed to drive the Japanese out of the Philippines. In January 1945, replacement aircraft flew from her decks to TF 38 flat tops for strikes on enemy air bases on Formosa and the China coast. Kwajalein returned to San Diego on 23 February for overhaul and additional aircraft before resuming operations on 9 March.

From March–August Kwajalein carried aircraft on three cruises from Pearl Harbor to the western Pacific, keeping carrier-based air groups at full strength for the massive carrier raids on the Japanese home islands. With the cessation of hostilities on 14 August 1945, the carrier was assigned the task of returning Pacific veterans to the United States. She made four cruises to the Pacific Islands before arriving at San Pedro on 2 February 1946, from her final Operation Magic Carpet mission. On 23 April, Kwajalein cleared San Pablo Bay for Mukilteo, Wash., arriving there 3 days later. She decommissioned at Tacoma, Washington on 16 August, and joined the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 April 1960, and she was scrapped in Japan the following year.


Battle of Kwajalein, 1-4 February 1944

Kwajalein was to be invaded by the Southern Attack Force (Task Force 52), under Admiral Turner and the Southern Landing Force (Task Group 56.1), made up of the 7th Infantry Division (Major General Charles H. Corlett). Admiral Turner commanded the invasion from the command ships USS Rocky Mount.

Admiral Turner's attack force consisted of four old battleships, 3 heavy cruisers, 21 destroyers, 2 high speed transports (APDs), 3 escort carriers, 12 LCIs and 4 mine sweepers.

Kwajelain island is the largest island in Kwajalein Atoll. It is shaped like a crescent, and is about two and a half miles long and 800 yards wide for most of its length and narrowing to 300 yards wide towards its northern tip. Part of the American plan involved capturing smaller nearby islands to use as artillery bases. The choice was between Carlson (Enubuj) Island to the west or Burton (Ebeye) Island to the north. Burton appeared to be defended, Carlson either un- or lightly defended.

Kwajalein was the HQ of the Japanese 6th Base Force, the unit charged with defending the Marshalls, and in many ways was a rear area. The Japanese expected the Americans to attack somewhere in the eastern Marshalls, and the move right into the heart of the island ground caught them out.

Kwajalein was the second most heavily defended island in the atoll. There were four 12.7cm dual purpose guns in twin mounts, with a battery of two at each end of the island. Both positions were supported by two 150cm searchlights and a mix of 13mm and 7.7mm machine guns. One twin-mounted 13mm machine gun was at the northern end of the island. There were six 8cm dual purpose guns in two three gun batteries on the ocean shore, one 8cm gun on the lagoon shore and one 8cm gun in the blockhouse on the main pier, facing into the lagoon at the northern end of the island. There were forty or so reinforced concrete pillboxes along the ocean shore and at the two ends of the island. There was a large tank ditch east of the airfield.

The Japanese had around 5,000 men in the southern part of Kwajalein Atoll when the Americans invaded. This included 933 men from the Army's 1st Amphibious Brigade, although most of this force had only just arrived and was due to move on fairly soon. Most of the rest of the force was made up of back area staff, construction staff and other less effective troops, and of the 5,000 men only around 1,820 were fully effective combat troops.

The invasion would take place on D+1. The 184th Regimental Combat Team would land on the left and the 32nd Regimental Combat Team on the right.

On 29 January TG 58.3 (Cowpens, Monterey and Bunker Hill) attacked Kwajalein Island itself then moved north-west ready to attack Eniwetok on the following day. On 30 January TG 58.1 took over at Kwajalein.

On 31 January the outlying islands of Carlson, Carlos, Carter and Cecil was all captured without any serious resistance. An artillery base was set up on Carlson, and by late in the afternoon a constant harassing bombardment of Kwajalein had begun. The island was also subjected to a naval bombardment from the San Francisco, Idaho and New Mexico and their screen of destroyers. At 0618 on 1 February the Mississippiand Pennsylvania took over that role. At 0712 the Mississippi closed to within 1,500 yards to begin a broadside bombardment of all visible targets. At around 0745 she switched her attention to Burton, and the Pennsylvania, New Mexico, Minneapolis, New Orleans, San Francisco and eight destroyers began a heavy bombardment of the landing areas at the western end of the island. At the same time the destroyers Ringgold and Sigsbee moved into the lagoon to stop any movement between the islands. On 1 February the Navy fired 7,000 14in, 8in and 5in shells at Kwajalein, in the heaviest pre-invasion naval bombardment of war so far. Another 29,000 rounds were fired by the artillery on Carlson. The various bombardments destroyed most of the fixed fortifications and all of the gun positions on the island.

The invasion itself was conducted over a 500 yard long beach at the western end of the island, named Red Beach 1 on the left (north) and Red Beach 2 on the right (south). The 32nd Regimental Combat Team (Col. Marc. J. Logie) was given the task of landing on the right, where the strongest defences faced the ocean. The 184th Regimental Combat Team (Col Curtis D. O'Sullivan) landed on the left. Each RCT was to land in columns of battalions, with the 1st Battalion, 32nd and 3rd Battalion, 184th, leading the way, with just over 3,000 men between them. They would also be supported by two companies from the 767th Tank Battalion.

The landing craft set off for the beach at 0900. At about the same time carrier aircraft attacked the landing zones once again, before at 0905 the last naval and artillery bombardment began. At 0928 the big guns shifted their fire inland. The attack was opposed by some light Japanese fire, before the first wave hit the beach at 0930, exactly as planned.

On the right the 32nd found itself facing fire from a few surviving pill boxes. The troops had to wait briefly on the beach while the LVTs fired over the sea wall, and one surviving pillbox on the beach was destroyed, before moving inland. On the left the LVTs were able to get a better field of fire inland and the advance began more quickly. By 1122 both of the leading battalions had advanced 150 yards inland without running into much resistance. The biggest problems was caused by the plan to have the first waves of LVTs move to the flanks then go back to pick up more troops - in the event they were unable to move across the beaches had had to move straight back out to sea, causing delays amongst later waves. Other than this, the American build up went smoothly. Tanks, mortars and artillery soon landed on the island, and by the end of the day the Americans had established a firm beachhead at the western end of Kwajalein. They had even reached the western end of the airfield, despite the odd moment of firm resistance. At the end of the first day the front line ran from the coast to the airfield on both sides, then looped around the western end of the airfield. A quarter of the island had already been conquered and six battalions were already ashore.

On many occasions the first night after an amphibious landing saw the Japanese launch fierce counterattacks. On Kwajalein the defenders had been so badly shaken by the events of the day that the attacks were on a smaller scale, but several were launched. The surviving Japanese troops on both sides of the line also made a series of smaller scale attacks that gave everyone a restless night, while the guns at the north-eastern tip of the island were still in action.

On day two (2 February) General Corlett planned to reach the far end of the island. The 32nd Regiment, on the right, was to sweep around the longer side of the island to reach the northern tip, while the 184th Regiment, on the left, was to deal with the defences on the lagoon side. The airfield was soon captured and the deep tank ditch to its east was crossed during the afternoon. The advance bogged down after that. Even so, Japanese resistance was clearly close to its end. The night of 2-3 February passed quietly, without even the expected banzai attack.

On day three (3 February) the Americans fought their way around the bend in the island and began to advance north, into the area with the most buildings, and a number of strong point on the ocean side of the island. The 32nd Regiment, on the right, made the quickest progress, and soon ended up well ahead of the 184th. The Japanese were unable to take advantage of this temporary vulnerability, but they were able to hold up the 184th, as it attempted to advance through a rubble field. It took most of the day, and the commitment of reinforcements, to get the 184th moving again, but by the end of the day the two regiments were side-by-side and only the northern part of the island remained to be conquered.

By the start of day 4 (4 February) on the northern 100 yards of the island remained in Japanese hands. This area contained the ruins of a large number of buildings and several defensive strong points, but most of these were facing out to sea. Although the fighting lasted well into the afternoon, the end was clearly close. There were even a surprisingly large number of prisoners taken, as resistance crumbled. By 1610 General Corlett was willing to announce that all organised resistance had ended, although fighting at the northern end of the island went on to dusk, and that area wasn't secured until 1820.

During the fighting on Kwajalein the Americans lost 177 dead and 1,000 wounded. The Japanese lost around 3,800 dead. The massive naval and air bombardment before the invasion, and the improved planning for an amphibious landing helped reduce American casualties, but their biggest advantage was that the Japanese simply hadn&rsquot expected a landing on Kwajalein.

At the same time as Kwajalein was being cleared, the Americans also invaded Burton Island (3-4 February 1944), clearing the island in two days. A series of other smaller islands also had to be cleared, but by 8 February Kwajalein Attol was declared secure.


USS Kwajalein - History

USS Indiana , a 35,000-ton South Dakota class battleship built at Newport News, Virginia, was commissioned in April 1942. After shaking down in the Atlantic, she joined the war against Japan, operating in the South Pacific from late November 1942 into October 1943. Indiana then moved to the Central Pacific, where she participated in the invasions of the Gilbert Islands in November 1943 and the Marshalls in January 1944. While engaged in the latter operation on 1 February 1944, she was damaged in a night collision with USS Washington (BB-56).

In April and May 1944, following repairs, Indiana escorted carriers in raids on Japanese positions in the Carolines. Beginning in June, she took part in the the Marianas campaign, including pre-invasion bombardment of Saipan and the Battle of the Philippine Sea. The battleship screened the fast carriers into the Autumn of 1944, assisting in strikes on the Palaus and Philippines. After an overhaul, Indiana returned to the Western Pacific in January 1945, in time to participate in the invasion of Iwo Jima, carrier raids on the Japanese Home Islands and the Ryukyus invasion. She passed through a typhoon in June and used her sixteen-inch guns to shell targets in Japan during the last weeks of the Pacific War. Returning to the U.S. soon after the Japanese surrender, Indiana was placed in reserve status in September 1946 and formally decommissioned a year later. She saw no further active service and was sold for scrapping in October 1963.

This page features selected views concerning USS Indiana (BB-58), and provides links to other images related to her.

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

In a South Pacific harbor, December 1942.
Taken by a USS Saratoga (CV-3) photographer.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 77KB 740 x 605 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Steaming with Task Force 58.1 on 27 January 1944, en route to attack Taroa Island airfield, Maloelap Atoll, Marshall Islands.
Taken by a USS Enterprise (CV-6) photographer.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 123KB 740 x 545 pixels

Steaming with Task Force 58.1 on 27 January 1944, en route to attack Taroa Island airfield, Maloelap Atoll, Marshall Islands.
Taken by a USS Enterprise (CV-6) photographer.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 174KB 740 x 615 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Underway at sea, 1944.
This view was probably taken in late January 1944, while the ship was en route to the Marshall Islands to support the Kwajalein invasion.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 53KB 610 x 675 pixels

Underway at sea in 1944, probably in late January while the ship was en route to the Marshall Islands to support the Kwajalein invasion.
This image has been cropped from Photo # NH 52662 to emphasize Indiana 's camouflage scheme.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 64KB 740 x 585 pixels

At Majuro Atoll for repairs on 3 February 1944. She had collided with USS Washington (BB-56) during the night of 1 February, while taking part in the Marshalls operation.
Damage to her starboard hull side is visible below her after 16-inch gun turret.
USS Washington , whose bow was wrecked in the accident, is in the left background, alongside USS Vestal (AR-4).

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 83KB 740 x 625 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Bombardment of Kamaishi, Japan, 14 July 1945

USS Indiana (BB-58) fires a salvo from her forward 16"/45 guns at the Kamaishi plant of the Japan Iron Company, 250 miles north of Tokyo. A second before, USS South Dakota (BB-57), from which this photograph was taken, fired the initial salvo of the first naval gunfire bombardment of the Japanese Home Islands.
The superstructure of USS Massachusetts (BB-59) is visible directly behind Indiana . The heavy cruiser in the left center distance is either USS Quincy (CA-71) or USS Chicago (CA-136) .

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 101KB 740 x 505 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Bombardment of Kamaishi, Japan, 14 July 1945

Battleships and heavy cruisers steam in column off Kamaishi, at the time they bombarded the iron works there, as seen from USS South Dakota (BB-57).
USS Indiana (BB-58) is the nearest ship, followed by USS Massachusetts (BB-59). Cruisers Chicago (CA-136) and Quincy (CA-71) bring up the rear.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 75KB 740 x 605 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Page made 7 March 2000
Photo removed due to incorrect identification 14 August 2009


USS Kwajalein - History

(CV-25: dp. 11,000 1. 622'6" b. 71'6" ew. 109'2" dr.26' s. 32 k. cpl. 1,569 a. 26 40mm. cl. Independence)

Cowpens (CV-25) was launched 17 January 1943 by New York ShipbuildingCorp., Camden, N.J., sponsored by Mrs. M. H. Spruance daughter of ViceAdmiral W. F. Halsey and commissioned 28 May 1943, Captain R. P. McConnell in command. She was reclassified CVL-25 on 15 July 1943.

Departing Philadelphia 29 August 1943 Cowpens arrived at Pearl Harbor19 September to begin the active and distinguished war career which was to earn a Navy Unit Commendation. She sailed with TF 14 for the strike onWake Island on 5 and 6 October, then returned to Pearl Harbor to preparefor strikes on the Marshall Islands preliminary to invasion. She sortiedfrom Pearl Harbor 10 November to launch air strikes on Mille and Makin atolls between 19 and 24 November, and Kwajalein and Wotje on 4 December, returningto her base 9 December.

Joining the vast carrier TF 58 Cowpens sailed from Pearl Harbor 16 January1944 for the invasion of the Marshalls. Her planes pounded Kwajalein andEniwetok the last 3 days of the month to prepare for the assault landingon the 31st. Using Majuro as a base the force struck at Truk on 16 and 17February and the Marianas on 21 and 22 February before putting in to Pearl Harbor 4 March. Returning to Majuro, TF 58 based here for attacks on thewestern Carolines Cowpens supplied air and antisubmarine patrols duringthe raids on Palau, Yap, Ulithi and Wolesi from 30 March to 1 April. After operating off New Guinea during the invasion of Hollandia from 21 to 28 April, Cowpens took part in the strikes on Truk, Satawan and Ponape between 29 April and 1 May, returning to Majuro 14 May for training.

From 6 June to 10 July 1944 Cowpens operated in the Marianas operation.Her planes struck the island of Saipan to aid the assault troops, and madesupporting raids on Iwo Jima, Pagan,.Rota, and Guam. They also took partin the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June, accounting for anumber of the huge tally of enemy planes downed. After a brief overhaulat Pearl Harbor, Cowpens rejoined the fast carrier task force at Eniwetokon 17 August. On the 29th she sailed for the preinvasion strikes on thePalaus, whose assault was an essential preliminary to the return to thePhilippines. From 13 to 17 September she was detached from the force tocover the landings on Morotai, then rejoined it for sweep, patrol, and attack missions against Luzon from 21 to 24 September. Cowpens with her task groupflew strikes to neutralize Japanese bases on Okinawa and Formosa from 10to 14 October, and when Canberra (CA-70) and Houston (CL-81) were hit bytorpedoes, Cowpens provided air cover for their safe withdrawal rejoiningher task group 20 October. En route to Ulithi, she was recalled when theJapanese Fleet threatened the Leyte invasion, and during the Battle of SurigaoStrait phase of the decisive Battle for Leyte Gulf on 25 and 26 Octoberprovided combat air patrol for the ships pursuing the fleeing remnant ofthe Japanese fleet. Continuing her support of the Philippines advance, Cowpens'planes struck Luzon repeatedly during December. During the disastrous typhoon of 18 December Cowpens lost one man, planes and equipment but skillful workby her crew prevented major damage, and she reached Ulithi safely 21 December to repair her storm damage.

Between 30 December 1944 and 26 January 1945 Cowpens was at sea for theLingayen Gulf landings. Her planes struck targets on Formosa, Luzon, theIndoChinese coast and the Hong Kong-Canton area and Okinawa during January.On 10 February Cowpen' sortied from Ulithi for the Iwo Jima operation, strikingthe Tokyo area, supporting the initial landings from 19 to 22 February, and hitting Okinawa on 1 March.

After overhaul at San Francisco and training at Pearl Harbor, Cowpenssailed 13 June for San Pedro Bay, Leyte, on her way striking Wake Island on 20 June. Rejoining TF 58 Cowpens sailed from San Pedro Bay 1 July tojoin in the final raids on the Japanese mainland. Her planes pounded Tokyo,Kure, and other cities of Hokkaido and Honshu until 15 August. Remainingoff Tokyo Bay until the occupation landings began 30 August, Cowpens launched photographic reconnaissance missions to patrol airfields and shipping movements,and to locate and supply prisoner-of-war camps. Men from Cowpens were largely responsible for the emergency activation of Yokosuka airfield for Allied use. Between 8 November 1945 and 28 January 1946 Cowpens made two voyages to Pearl Harbor, Guam, and Okinawa to return veterans. Placed in commission in reserve at Mare Island 3 December 1946, Cowpens was decommissioned 13January 1947.

In addition to her Navy Unit Commendation, Cowpens received 12 battlestars for World War II service.


USS Kwajalein - History


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Kwajalein Atoll

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Inside the Book

After the successful capture of Kwajalein and the other islands on the atoll by the 7th Infantry Division and the 4th Marine Division in 1944, the conditions on the ground were awful. Virtually all the Japanese buildings were reduced to piles of rubble and had to be cleared away for new construction. This is where Just Another Day in Paradise begins. There have been many books and articles written about the capture of Kwajalein and many more about the radar and missile testing that has gone on there since the early 1960s. What has been lacking is a thorough presentation of the living conditions on the island. These include the airport, harbor, barracks, quarters, schools, newspapers, recreation. These and other subjects are dealt with in detail in text and photos in this well-appointed book. Over 750 black & white photos are included in the 298 pages of the book. Many are from private collections and have not been seen by the public before. Also included are over 50 maps, charts and other illustrations.

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Upon completion of underway training, Laffey visited Washington Navy Yard for 1 day and departed 28 February 1944, arriving Bermuda 4 March. She returned briefly to Norfolk where she served as school ship, then headed for New York to join the screen of a convoy escort for England 14 May. Refueling at Greenock, Scotland, the ship continued on to Plymouth, England, arriving 27 May.

Laffey immediately prepared for the invasion of France. On 3 June she headed for the Normandy beaches escorting tugs, landing craft, and two Dutch gunboats. The group arrived in the assault area, off "Utah" beach, Baie de la Siene, France, at dawn on D-Day, 6 June. On the 6th and 7th Laffey screened to seaward and on the 8th and 9th, she bombarded gun emplacements with good results. Leaving the screen temporarily, the ship raced to Plymouth to replenish and returned to the coast of Normandy the next day. On 12 June Laffey pursued enemy "E" boats which had torpedoed destroyer Nelson. The destroyer broke up their tight formation and prevented further attacks.

Screening duties completed, the ship returned to England, arriving at Portsmouth 22 June where she tied up alongside Nevada. On 25 June she got underway with the battleship to join Bombardment Group 2 shelling the formidable defenses at Cherbourg, France. Upon reaching the bombardment area, the group was taken under fire by shore batteries and destroyers Barton and O&rsquoBrien were hit. Laffey was hit above the waterline by a richocheting shell that failed to explode and did little damage.

Late that day the bombardment group retired and headed for England, arriving at Belfast 1 July 1944. She sailed with Destroyer Division 119 three days later for home, arriving at Boston 9 July. After a month of overhaul, the destroyer got underway to test her newly installed electronic equipment. Two weeks later, Laffey set course for Norfolk, arriving 25 August.

Next day the destroyer departed for Hawaii via the Panama Canal and San Diego, California, arriving Pearl Harbor 18 September. On 23 October after extensive training, Laffey departed for the war zone, via Eniwetok, mooring at Ulithi 5 November. The same day she joined the screen of Task Force 38, then conducting airstrikes against enemy shipping, aircraft, and airfields in the Philippines. On 11 November the destroyer spotted a parachute, left the screen, and rescued a badly wounded Japanese pilot who was transferred to carrier Enterprise (CV 6) during refueling operations the next day. Laffey returned to Ulithi 22 November and on the 27th set course for Leyte Gulf with ships of Destroyer Squadron 60. Operating with the 7th Fleet, the destroyer screened the big ships against submarine and air attacks, covered the landings at Ormoc Bay 7 December, silenced a shore battery, and shelled enemy troop concentrations.

After a short upkeep in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, 8 December, Laffey with ships of Close Support Group 77.3 departed 12 December for Mindoro, where she supported the landings 15 December. After the beachhead had been established, Laffey escorted empty landing craft back to Leyte, arriving at San Pedro Bay 17 December. Ten days later Laffey joined Task Group 77.3 for patrol duty off Mindoro. After returning briefly to San Pedro Bay, she joined the Seventh Fleet, and, during the month of January 1945, screened amphibious ships landing troops in the Lingayen Gulf area of Luzon. Retiring to the Caroline Islands, the destroyer arrived Ulithi 27 January. During February the ship supported Task Force 58, conducting diversionary airstrikes at Tokyo and direct air support of marines landing on Iwo Jima. Late in February Laffey carried vital intelligence information to Admiral Nimitz at Guam, arriving 1 March.

The next day, the destroyer arrived Ulithi for intensive training with battleships of Task Force 54. On 21 March, she sortied with the task force for the Okinawa invasion. Laffey helped capture Kerama Retto, bombarded shore establishments, harassed the enemy with fire at night, and screened heavy units. Assigned to a radar picket station 30 miles north of Okinawa, Laffey arrived 14 April and almost immediately joined in repulsing an air attack which cost the enemy 13 airplanes. The next day the enemy launched another severe air attack with some 50 planes. About half of the Japanese raiders broke through the screen to Laffey. The game destroyer splashed nine and friendly aircraft destroyed others. But, when the attack was over, the ship was badly damaged by four bombs and five kamakaze hits. The gallant destroyer suffered 103 casualties: 32 dead and 71 wounded.

Laffey was taken under tow and anchored off Okinawa 17 April. Temporary repairs were rushed and the destroyer sailed for Saipan arriving 27 April. Four days later she got underway for the west coast via Eniwetok and Hawaii arriving at Seattle, 24 May. She entered drydock at Todd Shipyard Corp. for repairs until 6 September, then sailed for San Diego, arriving 9 September.

Two days later the ship got underway for exercises but collided with PC-815 in a thick fog. She rescued all but one of the PC's crew before returning to San Diego for repairs.

On 5 October she sailed for Pearl Harbor, arriving 11 October. Laffey operated in Hawaiian waters until 21 May 1946 when she participated in the atomic bomb tests at Bikini, actively engaged in collecting scientific data. Upon completion of the tests she sailed for the west coast via Pearl Harbor arriving San Diego 22 August for operations along the west coast.

In February 1947 Laffey made a cruise to Guam and Kwajalein and returned to Pearl Harbor 11 March. The ship operated in Hawaiian waters until departing for Australia 1 May. She returned to San Diego 17 June, decommissioned 30 June 1947, and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet.

Laffey was recommissioned 26 January 1951, Comdr. Charles Holovak in command. After shakedown out of San Diego, the destroyer headed for the east coast arriving at Norfolk in February for overhaul followed by refresher training at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. In mid-January 1952, she sailed for Korea, arriving in March. The ship operated with Task Force 77 screening carriers Antietam (CV 36) and Valley Forge (CV 45) until May, when Abe joined a bombardment and blockade group in Wonson Harbor engaging several enemy shore batteries. After brief refit at Yokosuka 30 May, the ship returned to Korea where it rejoined Task Force 77. On 22 June Laffey sailed for the East Coast, transiting the Suez Canal and arriving Norfolk 19 August.

The destroyer operated in the Caribbean with a hunterkilIer group until February 1954, departing on a world cruise which included a tour off Korea until 29 June. Laffey departed the Far East bound for the east coast via the Suez Canal arriving Norfolk 25 August 1954. Operating out of Norfolk, the destroyer participated in fleet exercises and plane guard duties, and on 7 October rescued four passengers from Able Lady, a schooner which had sunk in a storm off the Virginia Capes.

During the first part of 1955, Laffey participated in extensive antisubmarine exercises, visiting Halifax, Nova Scotia, New York City, Miami, and ports in the Caribbean. During 1956 she operated with ASW carriers in Floridian and Caribbean waters.

On 7 November 1956 the destroyer departed Norfolk and headed for the Mediterranean at the height of the Suez crisis. Upon arrival she joined the 6th Fleet which was patrolling the Israeli-Egyptian border showing the U.S. flag and expressing our interest in the peaceful outcome of the crisis. When international tensions eased, Laffey returned to Norfolk 20 February 1957, and resumed operations along the Atlantic coast departing 3 September for NATO operations off Scotland. She then headed for the Mediterranean and rejoined the Sixth Fleet. Laffey returned to Norfolk 22 December 1957. In June 1958 she made a cruise to the Caribbean for a major exercise.

Returning to Norfolk, the next month she resumed regular operations until 7 August 1959 when she deployed with Destroyer Squadron 32 for the Mediterranean. Laffey transited the Suez Canal 14 December, stopped at Massaua, Eritrea, and continued on the Aramco loading port of Ras Tanura, Saudi Arabia, where she spent Christmas. The destroyer operated in the Persian Gulf until late January when it transited the Suez Canal and headed for home, arriving Norfolk 26 February 1960. Laffey then operated out of Norfolk, making a Caribbean cruise and, in mid-August, the ship participated in a large naval NATO exercise. In October the ship visited Antwerp, Belgium, returning Norfolk 20 October, but headed back to the Mediterranean in January 1961.

While there she assisted SS Dara, a British freighter in distress. The destroyer sailed for home in mid-August and arrived at Norfolk on the 28th. Laffey set out in September on a vigorous underway training program designed to blend the crew into an effective fighting team and continued this training until February 1963, when she assumed the duties of service ship for the Norfolk Test and Evaluation Detachment. Between October 1963 and June 1964 Laffey operated with a hunter-killer group along the eastern seaboard and on 12 June made a midshipmen cruise to the Mediterranean, arriving in Palma, Majorca, 23 June. Two days later the task group departed for a surveillance mission observing Soviet naval forces training in the Mediterranean. Laffey visited Mediterranean ports of Naples, Italy Theoule, France Rota and Valencia, Spain, returning to Norfolk 3 September. Laffey continued to make regular Mediterranean cruises with the mighty Sixth Fleet, and participated in numerous operational and training exercises in the Atlantic and Caribbean. Into 1968 she was making further vital contributions to the Navy's readiness and ability to keep the peace and thwart the threat of aggression.

Laffey received five battle stars for World War II service and two battle stars for Korean service.


USS Kwajalein - History

The end of the Pacific War, and hence World War II, was brought about by the surrender of Japan following the dropping of atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These were, respectively, the second and third nuclear detonations on the surface of the planet. The first bomb was detonated at Alamagordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, at 5:30 a.m. The second bomb was detonated over Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, at 8:15 a.m. The third bomb was detonated over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, at 10:58 a.m. The fourth and fifth bombs were detonated during the atomic tests at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

The first large-scale atomic weapons effects tests conducted by the United States, the "Able" test detonation of July 1, 1946, at 9:00 a.m. local time at Bikini, and the "Baker" test detonation of July 25, 1946, at approximately 8:35 a.m. local time, were the first two of the three-part "Operation Crossroads" tests. (The third detonation, the "Charlie" test, was cancelled.) Formulated at the war's end and approved by President Harry S Truman on January 10, 1946, Operation Crossroads was not only the first of more than 850 publicly announced atomic weapons tests. It was a major demonstration of the power of the bomb and of the nation that had produced and used it, the United States. The name was selected because the atomic bomb represented a "crossroads"--from conventional to nuclear war.

Joint Task Force One press release photo of the target area at Bikini, 1946. (U.S. Naval Institute)

The tests involved assembling a fleet of 242 ships, 42,000 men, 156 airplanes, and tens of thousands of tons of equipment, ordnance, and material at Bikini, as well as relocating the 162 residents of the atoll--beginning an odyssey that has earned for these displaced people the sobriquet of "nuclear nomads" of the Pacific. Observers from Congress, from other nations (including the Soviet Union), and representatives of "U.S. press, radio, pictorial services, magazines, etc." made these tests the most public and the most reported of any nuclear weapons tests. [1] The inherent message of nuclear weapons was underscored at Bikini, and has since become increasingly the subject of public debate and concern as the progeny of the Manhattan project multiplied until by 1986, according to one nonofficial estimate, the United States had manufactured 60,000 warheads of 71 types for 116 different weapons systems. [2]

Initially, the development and use of atomic weapons was welcomed and celebrated in the United States because the destruction of two Japanese cities had brought a fierce enemy to his knees through the fear of rapid annihilation. The toll of fighting at Palau, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa was still vividly recalled. Many thousands of American lives would have been lost in a bloody invasion of the Japanese home islands. Consciences were salved when the death toll at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, while terrible, was less than the number of Japanese civilians killed in the B-29 fire-bombing raids on Tokyo, Nagoya, and Kobe. Soon, however, as historian Paul Boyer has noted, a grim realization set in. Moral implications of the use of the atomic bomb troubled some observers. More pragmatically, many realized that the bomb was a world-threatening weapon. The spectre of nuclear armageddon overshadowed the globe, and in the United States, the understanding that the bomb could also someday be used against the United States brought the first chills to the Cold War. General H. H. "Hap" Arnold, head of the U.S. Army Air Forces, was the first to publicly prophesize that World War III would not last as long as World War II World War III would be over in hours, with no one left to determine who had won.

Widespread comprehension of the bomb's grim reality was not immediate. It took many years, the detonation of a nuclear bomb by the Soviet Union, and the development of vast arsenals of more potent nuclear weapons with the capacity to kill every living thing on earth several times over, for fear to set in. Yet until then, people accepted the bomb as a deadly and powerful beneficial force. At the very beginning, though, the message was clear. In 1946, a press report noted that while "a large number of scientists are looking forward to the forthcoming explosion. [the] least curious. are the atomic scientists. They take a poor view of the entire operation, maintaining that the explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki have perfectly well demonstrated the basic fact that the atomic bomb is too powerful a weapon to leave outside the confines of international control and that Operation Crossroads will simply underline this truth. " [3] The commander of Joint Task Force One which conducted Operation Crossroads was Vice Adm. William Henry Purnell Blandy. Blandy, writing in the foreword to Bombs at Bikini, the "official" public report on the tests, noted "the atomic bomb is definitely not 'just another weapon' its destructive power dwarfs all previous weapons. Observers at Bikini saw the bomb sink great steel warships and, with its penetrating nuclear radiation, reach into ships' interiors to kill test animals. The explosions in air and underwater were very different spectacles, but their end results mean the same: death and destruction on an enormous scale." [4]

Admiral W. H. P. Blandy, commander of Joint Task Force One. (National Archives)

Operation Crossroads was interpreted as a defensive measure to the American public. Testing the effect of the atomic bomb on warships and their crews would specifically "improve our Navy." According to Bombs at Bikini,

We want ships which are tough, even when threatened by atomic bombs we want to keep the ships afloat, propellers turning, guns firing we want to protect the crews so that, if fighting is necessary, they can fight well today and return home unharmed tomorrow. the unequalled importance of the atomic bomb. shakes the very foundations of military strategy. [5]

However, the concept of the bomb's deployment against ships was as an offensive weapon. Admiral Blandy told the Senate Committee on Atomic Energy on January 24, 1946, "The ultimate results of the tests, so far as the Navy is concerned, will be their translation into terms of United States sea power. Secondary purposes are to afford training for Army Air Forces personnel in attack with the atomic bomb against ships and to determine the effect of the atomic bomb upon military installations and equipment." [6]

The history of the war, beginning with the surprise attack on the fleet at Pearl Harbor, and a hard four-year fight at a tremendous cost instilled a strong sense of the best defense being offense. The atomic bomb provided the strongest offensive capability available, and nuclear deterrence and the Cold War invocation of the necessity of nuclear capability were first aired for Operation Crossroads:

The tests stand out clearly as a defensive measure. We are seeking to primarily learn what types of ships, tactical formations and strategic dispositions of our own naval forces will best survive attack by the atomic weapons of other nations, should we ever have to face them. By no stretch of the imagination can such steps of caution and economy be taken as a threat of aggression. If, because of such a false assumption, we failed to carry out these experiments, to learn the lessons which they can teach us, our designers of ships, aircraft and ground equipment, as well as our tacticians, strategists and medical officers would be groping their way along a dark road which might lead to another and worse Pearl Harbor. [7]

In April 1946, Admiral Blandy, reporting that "some of our leading scientists" agreed that "other nations with even a moderate degree of industrialization can manufacture atomic bombs in a few years. our Armed Forces must be kept modern, and one of the first steps in modernizing them is to learn the full capabilities of any new weapon which may be brought against them." [8] Among the more interesting aspects of Operation Crossroads was the inclusion of foreign observers from 11 countries, among them the Soviet Union, a rival for global influence.

THE CONCEPT OF A NAVAL TEST EVOLVES

The news of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima started discussions among naval circles as to the new weapon's effect on ships this question was posed on the floor of the Senate on August 25, 1945, when Senator Brien McMahon of Connecticut stated:

In order to test the destructive powers of the atomic bomb against naval vessels, I would like. Japanese naval ships taken to sea and an atomic bomb dropped on them. The resulting explosion should prove to us just how effective the atomic bomb is when used against the giant naval ships. I can think of no better use for these Jap ships. [9]

The idea of using the bomb against ships was not new "even in 1944, Los Alamos scientists were looking into the possibilities of eventually atomic-bombing Japanese fleet concentrations," specifically the Japanese naval base at Truk Lagoon, but by that late date the Imperial Japanese Navy was already decimated by conventional warfare. [10] American submarines waged a terrible war of attrition: disastrous sea battles and bombing raids sank most Japanese capital ships, leaving a pitiful remnant of the once formidable fleet at war's end.

The destruction of the 48 surviving surface warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy surrendered at war's end was guaranteed regardless of whether or not the atomic bomb was used. [11] The new Japan would be demilitarized and its remaining vessels sunk or scrapped. On August 28, 1945, Fleet Adm. Ernest J. King, Commander in Chief of the U.S. Fleet, recommended that the remaining Japanese vessels be destroyed. Lt. Gen. B. M. Giles, on MacArthur's staff in Tokyo, followed Senator McMahon's lead and proposed on September 14, 1945, that atomic bombs be used to sink the Japanese ships. The proposal was supported by Maj. Gen. Curtis LeMay, architect of the fire-bombing raids on Japan. Gen. H. H. "Hap" Arnold concurred, and asked the Navy on September 18 that "a number of the Japanese vessels be made available to the Army Air Forces for use in tests involving atomic bombs and other weapons." [12]

This proposal met with a positive response from the Navy. As early as June 1945, the Navy's Bureau of Ships (BuShips) and Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) had recommended a "comprehensive program for testing high explosives against merchant and warship hulks, captured enemy vessels, and United States Navy combatant ships about to be stricken from the active list." [13] The Underwater Explosion Program had been approved by the Chief of Naval Operations, but the deployment of the atomic bomb changed the scope of the effort. On August 28, the same day Admiral King recommended destroying the Japanese ships, the Chief of the Bureau of Ships, Vice Adm. E. L. Cochrane, informed the Underwater Explosion Program staff that they "must be prepared to undertake broad-scale experiments with the atomic bomb to clear up its major influence on naval warfare" as their first priority. The Chief of Naval Operations was notified by BuShips and BuOrd that "full-scale testing. both underwater and above water, against ships of various types" using the atomic bomb was imperative. [14] At the same time, the United States Navy, which had built a formidable fleet of more than 1,200 ships during the war, was scaling down.

At the end of August 1945, Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal suggested that the Navy would be reduced to a 400-ship force with 8,000 aircraft, with the remaining ships held in reserve. This situation provided the Navy with a large number of potentially expendable ships for weapons testing. Questioned about the atomic bomb, Forrestal strongly underscored the fact that the bomb would ultimately be put to use at sea, noting that "control of the sea by whatever weapons are necessary is the Navy's mission." The next day, The New York Times, reporting on the Navy's opposition to merging the War and Navy Departments, noted that the Navy was probably amenable to joint operations regarding "scientific developments," and prophesized that "it would not at all be surprising" within the next six months for a proposal "to test the effects of the new atomic bomb against warships. There has been speculation. whether the atomic bomb. might cause the bottoms of steel ships to disintegrate and thus sink the entire fleet. some Navy authorities say they would like to see such a test conducted against some of our old battleships, for, if the atomic bomb works this way, they want to know it." [15]

Given the Navy's strong interest in the bomb and its commitment to the Underwater Explosion Program and that program's priority being atomic testing, and with the Army Air Forces' proposal in hand, Admiral King agreed on October 16, 1945, to atomic bombing of the Japanese ships as a coordinated action of the Army and Navy under the control of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, with "a few of our own modern naval vessels. included in the target array" for air and underwater detonations, following the advice and plans of the Underwater Explosion Program staff. [16] On October 24, The New York Times reported that the Navy was to test the bomb to assess its effect on ships both dispersed and "massed at anchorage as in Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941." [17] It was not until December 10, 1945, however, that an official announcement of joint Army-Navy tests of the bomb was made. The New York Times, covering the announcement, stated that the details had yet to be worked out, specifically noting that the Army Air Forces "have been working aggressively to get a leading role in the experiment to make sure it would not be an all-Navy affair." [18] While hotly denied, the issue of Army-Navy competition was continually raised throughout the tests a July 30, 1946, article in The New York Times quoted an unnamed Army officer's attacks on the "battleship mentality" of "die-hard" naval officers, noting "in the event of a future war. a Navy as we know it now will be utterly helpless on either side."

The concept of the tests was appealing for more than technical reasons while "it is indeed routine to test each new weapon in all major applications," including against naval targets, "the novelty of the proposed test of the atomic bomb against naval vessels would lie in the unprecedented scale and world-wide importance of the tests." [19] Even more attractive was the overt symbolism of the atomic bomb destroying the surviving capital ships of the Japanese Navy one early 1946 newspaper account, accompanied by an Associated Press photograph of 24 battered-looking submarines and destroyers, crowed "Trapped Remnants of Jap Fleet Face Destruction in United States Navy Atom-Bomb Tests." Another symbolic and significant aspect of the tests was a demonstration that the United States was now the world leader it alone possessed the secret of nuclear power, it had a stockpile of atomic bombs capable of being used again, and it was sufficiently wealthy to expend three (the original number of planned detonations) of these bombs and nearly a hundred ships in the most costly and elaborate weapons tests performed on earth up to that time.

Considerable interest in the tests by scientists assessing the weapon's effects was publicly touted. In July 1946, Life magazine reported that "a large number of scientists are looking forward to the forthcoming explosion. never having had a chance to test the effects of atomic energy in their own areas of knowledge," because they would have "a laboratory example of what may happen to the world and the animate and inanimate things on it in the event that war comes again." [20] Throughout Operation Crossroads, and well after, "scientific benefits" of the tests were stressed. These benefits were for the military, which learned from Crossroads and the hundreds of tests that followed to make stronger, deadlier nuclear weapons:

At Hiroshima and Nagasaki a few photographs and pressure measurements were made of the explosions, but almost nothing of value to physicists was learned. Physicists wanted actual values of the following: pressure, impulse, accelerations, shock-wave velocity, ranges and intensities of gamma radiation, decrease of the gamma radiation during the first few hours. And medical men, arriving at the scene late, found it difficult to tell what the early symptoms of the injured persons had been, and whether the injuries resulted primarily from flash burn, gamma radiation, or from secondary factors such as fires, and floods, and lack of food, over-exertion, and lack of medical attention. [21]

(1) DD Anderson
(2) SS Apogon
(3) BB Arkansas
(4) APA Carlisle
(5) APA Gilliam
(6) DD Lamson
(7) BB Nagato
(8) SS Pilotfish
(9) CL Sakawa
(10) CV Saratoga
(11) ARDC-13
(12) YO-160
(13) LCT-1114
(14) APA Banner
(15) APA Barrow
(16) APA Bracken
(17) APA Briscoe
(18) APA Brule
(19) APA Butte
(20) APA Carteret
(21) APA Catron
(22) APA Crittenden
(23) APA Dawson
(24) SS Dentuda
(25) APA Fallon
(26) APA Gasconade
(27) DD Holmes
(28) CVL Independence
(29) DD Mayrant
(30) DD Mustin
The Able Target Array, showing the actual point of detonation. Shaded vessels sank as a result of the blast. (click on image for a PDF version)

(31) BB New York
(32) BB Nevada
(33) SS Parche
(34) BB Pennsylvania
(35) CA Pensacola
(36) IX Prinz Eugen
(37) DD Rhind
(38) CA Salt Lake City
(39) SS Searaven
(40) SS Skate
(41) SS Skipjack
(42) DD Stack
(43) DD Talbot
(44) DD Trippe
(45) SS Tuna
(46) DD Wainwright
(47) DD Wilson
(48) LCM-1
(49) LST-52
(50) LSM-60
(51) YOG-83
(52) LST-133
(53) LCT-327
(54) LCT-332
(55) LCT-674
(56) LCT-816
(57) LCT-818
The Baker Target Array, showing the actual point of detonation. Shaded vessels sank as a result of the blast. Both illustrations were redrawn by Robbyn Jackson of the NPS Historic American Engineering Record from JTF-1 sketches. (click on image for a PDF version)

The Trinity detonation at the Alamagordo Air Base Range (now White Sands Missile Range) in July 1945 was a weapons proof shot Hiroshima and Nagasaki were combat uses that had to be scrupulously analyzed after the fact for effect determinations. Operation Crossroads was of particular importance to the military it was an opportunity for weapons scientists to assess, under a controlled environment, the effects of the bomb.

The bombs for Crossroads were delivered by the Los Alamos scientists who had also provided the bombs used for Trinity and against Japan. According to one report, the Crossroads bombs were drawn from the U.S. stockpile of nine implosion-type core devices these weapons were nearly identical to the Mk III "Fat Man" bomb dropped on Nagasaki. [22] These weapons reportedly yielded a 23-kiloton effect, equal to 23,000 tons of TNT. ("Official" yield credited at the time was 20 kilotons.) The bombs "contained a proximity-fuze system of extremely great reliability, sensitivity, and absolute accuracy. The detonation system was set for an altitude of 515 feet." [23]

Initially three tests were planned in order to assess the effects of pressure, impulse, shock-wave velocity, optical radiation, and nuclear radiation particular to the bomb. The air burst was reportedly to duplicate the conditions of the drop on Hiroshima, this time over water. The second shallow underwater blast was to simulate an attack on a fleet at anchor. The third test (cancelled) was to take place in the lee of Oruk Island, off the atoll, in 1,000 to 2,000 feet of water, with a small number of vessels moored above the blast solely to test the underwater effect of the bomb.

A variety of preparations were made to handle logistics, relocation of the Bikinians, and the various scientific studies and tests that were performed at the atoll. The 242 vessels involved in Operation Crossroads were the subject of the most preparation: organized in three groups--target ships (combatant), target ships (auxiliaries), and support ships. These vessels were placed "in the best possible material condition" at Pearl Harbor, Bremerton, Terminal Island, Hunter's Point, Philadelphia, and at Bikini. [24]

A Mark III "Fat Man" bomb casing. (NPS, Candace Clifford)

Preparations for the tests involved surveys of structural and watertight integrity, installation of test equipment, stripping of armament and other items not required as test equipment, the removal of "certain items of historical interest or of a critical nature" from each ship--usually bells, nameplates, commemorative plaques, ship's silver sets--and their transfer to "the Curator of the Navy Department" in Washington, D.C. [25] The target ships were then loaded "with specified amounts of ammunition, fuel oil, gasoline, water. Ships were loaded as closely as possible to the battle or operating displacement of the ships. Varying percentages of the wartime allowance of ammunition and of the normal capacity of fuel oil and gasoline were carried in the ships' magazines and bunker tanks. All gasoline drums, airplanes loaded with gasoline, and similar items were placed in pans with coamings approximately 18 inches high to prevent dispersal of the gasoline." [26] In some cases emergency repairs were made to battle-damaged ships for the tests. USS Pennsylvania (BB-38), for example, had a cofferdam patch on the hull where a torpedo had holed the ship in August 1945. This patch was reinforced and tightened, and a special watertight box was built around a steam steering engine shaft which, if flooded, would be damaged if the shaft bearings were immersed in salt water. [27] Other preparations included the establishment of vertical and horizontal reference lines for list and twist determination, installation of deck compression gauges, installation of special boarding ladders on the shell plating from waterline to deck edge, and painting of frame numbers on the hull and decks. A full photographic record was made of all "special installations." [28]

Factors involved in selecting the ships ranged from specific types and methods of construction to specific materials. In its enabling directive, Joint Task Force One was instructed to include not only captured enemy vessels in the target array but to also test vessels "representative of modern U.S. naval and merchant types. " However, "it was not feasible to include vessels of all U.S. naval types--especially the most modern types." A range of vessels were selected to include welded and riveted construction and the evolution of ship compartmentalization "although the older vessels have extensive subdivision, recent ships have more complete transverse water-tightness to high-level decks and incorporate principles of longitudinal framing." [29] Therefore, the final target array included for the most part vessels that were "over-age or of obsolete design--which would otherwise have been decommissioned and sold for scrap. However, a modern aircraft carrier and several modern heavy-hulled submarines were included also." [30] Five battleships were selected, one being the Japanese Nagato, which was presumably included solely to sink it. The U.S. battleships, all of a type made obsolete by the newer classes, were included because "although not of most modern design [they] possessed great resistance to battle damage" because of heavy hulls, torpedo-protection systems of multiple longitudinal bulkheads, heavy armor, double or triple bottoms, and some 600 watertight compartments. [31]

Four cruisers--two U.S., one German (Prinz Eugen), and one Japanese (Sakawa) --were included. The American-built ships were "excellent examples of prewar riveted construction, with structure somewhat heavier than any cruisers up to the latest 8-in. cruisers built during the war." Sakawa and Prinz Eugen were selected because "they represented the latest in cruiser design of Germany and Japan." [32] Sakawa was intended to sink, as was Nagato both vessels were moored within a 1,000-yard perimeter of the designated zeropoint for both tests, while Prinz Eugen was moored outside of the immediate blast area. Saratoga and Independence, the two carriers, were selected to include an old, pre-war carrier and a modern, but less than satisfactory light carrier. (The Independence class, a wartime necessity, were light, hastily constructed ships.) Saratoga 's selection was justified as follows:

Subdivision of the Saratoga was unusually complete she had approximately 1000 watertight compartments. There were 22 main transverse bulkheads and two continuous longitudinal bulkheads extended 70 percent of the length. Two watertight platforms extended fore and aft of the machinery spaces. The underwater protection was very similar in arrangement to that of modern battleships and large carriers. An inner bottom above the bottom shell was fitted between the innermost torpedo bulkheads for about 80 percent of the length. [33]

The 12 target destroyers selected represented three immediate prewar types--the Mahan, Gridley, and Sims classes. The attack transports were "typical of modern merchant-ship practice, with good transverse subdivision. These vessels were designed and built during the war and were essentially of all-welded construction, with very few riveted joints." [34] Target landing craft were included "more for the purpose of determining the effects of wave action than for determining direct effects of pressure on the hulls." [35]

Three reinforced concrete vessels were used--ARDC-13, YO-160, and YOG-83. These three vessels were selected for dispersal within the target array from a group of craft scheduled for disposal to satisfy the Navy's Bureau of Yards and Docks' interest "in the damage to reinforced concrete structures at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The lack of suitable land areas at Bikini made construction of similar installations impractical, even if there had been time." [36] The eight target submarines were "selected from those scheduled for the reserve fleets or for disposal by scrapping. They represented the two major types [the Gato and Balao classes], light and heavy hull construction, built in recent years by [among others] the three submarine building yards of the Electric Boat Company and the naval shipyards at Portsmouth and Mare Island." [37] Some vessels were individually selected because of age, previous battle damage, and, occasionally, to replace ships selected but not available. LCT-705 and LCT-1013 were placed in the Able target array to serve as "catchers to collect samples of any fission products which might fall out of the atomic cloud." [38] The selection of 35 "major" vessels--from the battleships and carriers to the submarines--was publicly announced on January 24, 1946, at the first Crossroads press conference in Washington. [39]

Opposition to the tests surfaced for a variety of reasons, among them the destruction of the ships. One objection was to the cost of the various target ships: in March 1946, Admiral Blandy testified before the Senate Naval Affairs Committee that the construction costs for the target ships totaled $450 million, but noted that all the ships were obsolescent except for five submarines and the light carrier Independence. [40] Senator Scott Lucas of Illinois criticized the tests as a "grandiose display of atomic destruction" and argued that the target ships, if no longer useful for naval purposes, could be converted "into temporary homes for veterans." [41] One citizen, writing to protest the tests, was angry not over the loss of ships, but of valuable steel, and noted that airplane engineers tested models in wind tunnels and thus "do not need to destroy full size planes to see just what the planes will do under certain conditions. Scientists do not need to kill elephants to determine the reaction of chemicals and drugs. They use small mice." [42]

In response to criticism over the cost, Blandy responded on April 16 that the total costs of the tests would probably not exceed the total cost of "one large new ship," since the obsolete targets had been declared surplus and even if sunk "the cost for at least 90 percent would be only their scrap value," which the admiral estimated at $100 million. [43] In response to letters protesting the use of the target ships, Joint Task Force One's form letter response was that the ships were either obsolescent or "in excess of the number required to keep our post-war Navy at its proper strength." The letter emphasized that not all ships would be destroyed even "those badly damaged. may be towed back to the United States and sold as scrap. Still others may be placed back into service. " [44] One letter writer wanted to place target ships in personal service: 11-year-old Max Ladewasser "and gang" wanted some of the ships presented to the children of the country specifically "I would like to have a real P.T. boat which we could run on Lake Michigan." [45]

Some protests focused on the selection of individual ships as targets, specifically the battleships New York and Pennsylvania. When New York sailed from its namesake city in January 1946 for Bikini, the loss of the ship was lamented as veterans' groups and the state chamber of commerce lobbied to save it. "New York may lose forever its most useful and fitting war memorial unless something is done to prevent destruction of our century's Old Ironsides as an atom bomb target. This ship should be permanently on display in New York. " An unnamed officer stated that "I don't see why she couldn't have been given to the State, just as her sister ship, the Texas, was given to that State." [46] The response from Joint Task Force One was that while "it is regretted that such ships as the New York cannot be spared and exhibited as memorials, it is felt that this gallant battleship could perform no more valuable or distinguished service for our post-war Navy than it will render in the historic tests. " [47] It was also noted that "many other ships of the target group have equally glorious battle records and are similarly distinguished historically in their respective classes. It is sincerely regretted that such ships which have served with distinction in our Navy for so many years cannot be spared. " [48]

Joint Task Force One press release chart depicting "scrap" costs of Operation Crossroads. (U.S. Naval Institute)

The criticism by some nuclear scientists that the tests would add little or nothing to the understanding of the bomb was in part based on their assertion that ships, as mechanically stronger structures than buildings, would remain afloat and undamaged, lessening fear of the bomb by people who expected the total destruction of the fleet prophesized by the press, thus creating a "feeling of false security." Two explosive weapons had already been detonated--Able and Baker's bombs were identical to the Nagasaki weapon. The "greatest weakness" of the tests, however, was that as of early February 1946,

no provisions are indicated for studying the effects of the bomb's radiation on ships' crews. What might happen in a real case, is that a large ship, about a mile away from the explosion, would escape sinking, but the crew would be killed by the deadly burst of radiations from the bomb, and only a ghost ship would remain, floating unattended on the vast waters of the ocean. If not killed outright, the crew may well suffer such strong radiation damage, as to become critically ill a few days later. [49]

This prescient comment's various implications were in part answered by the decision to place animals on the target ships to study the bomb's effects on them. Protests against the use of the animals were numerous among the letters received were a few that grimly reflected on the use of enemy vessels as targets, with the addition of "Germans and Japanese who have been condemned to death by proper courts of jurisdiction." [50] One writer suggested that "in lieu of the 4000 innocent animals. a like or greater number of war criminals be used instead. It would seem to me to be more in keeping with the principles of justice and humanity to punish those responsible for the agonies the world was plunged into through their actions rather than to cause suffering to creatures whose only sin is existence at a lower biological level than our own." [51]

Considerable protest arose over the exposure Of animals aboard the target ships. Two goats aboard USS Niagara. (National Archives)

The target vessels were assembled at Bikini between May and June, 1946. They were moored at numbered berths, carefully arranged around the projected surface or ground zeropoint so that graduated scales of damage would be inflicted on the ships. A large number of vessels were required "in order to gain the greatest amount of useful information. and. determine the complete relationship between ship damage and distance from the explosion." The necessity of a large target fleet for Able test "was especially clear after it had been decided to drop the bomb from an airplane. it was clear that there would be uncertainty as to the point of detonation." [52] Ninety-five naval vessels, representing the products of U.S., Japanese, and German shipyards, were selected as the target fleet for Operation Crossroads. This fleet consisted of two aircraft carriers, five battleships, four cruisers, twelve destroyers, eight submarines, nineteen attack transports (APAs), six LCVPs, five LSTs, one LSM, sixteen LCTs, seven LCIs, six LCMs, and three auxiliary barges, namely one YO, one YOG, and one ARDC. [53] It is important to note that 88 vessels, not the full number of target ships, were deployed in the Able target array. The number of U.S. combatant vessels used as targets was limited to 33 ships by Congressional legislation (H. Res. 307) authorizing the tests "considerable public feeling developed to the effect that valuable vessels were going to be destroyed Congress reacted by putting an upper limit to the number of U.S. combatant ships." [54] Though the landing craft and auxiliaries were naval vessels, they were not commissioned and hence were not counted nor were the attack transports, which arguably were also not "combatant" ships, making 28 American-built "combatant ships" counting only the carriers, cruisers, battleships, destroyers, and submarines. Disappointment not withstanding, the press proudly reported at Bikini that the target fleet formed the world's fifth or sixth largest navy, with only the navies of the U.S., Great Britain, the Soviet Union, France, "and perhaps Sweden" surpassing it. [55]

Nevada, the target ship for Able. (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

The target arrays were selected "to provide the best instrumentation possible, rather than be placed in a tactical formation. This policy was approved for both tests." [56] The vessels were closely grouped together near the center of the array "because of the. decrease of pressure with increase in distance from the zeropoint." [57] The test array for the Able test included 24 vessels within the 1,000-yard radius of Nevada, the designated zeropoint, while 21 vessels were placed within the 1,000-yard radius of the point of detonation for the Baker test.

Additionally, the Joint Chiefs of Staff required the target arrays to graduate the level of damage "this involved dispersing the target fleet so that individual ships of each major type would be placed in positions ranging from close. for major damage. to appreciable distances. for light damage." [58] Since sufficient numbers of each type of vessel were not available, the best layout, geometric lines, bow and stern on, and broadside to the blast, was adhered to only for those ships that were present in large quantities--landing craft, destroyers, and attack transports. These ships were berthed at regular intervals along a single, curved (to keep one ship from partially shielding another) line extending radially from the designated zeropoint, which was 5,400 yards off the beach of Bikini Island. The battleship Nevada was selected as the zeropoint "target" for Able because it was "the most rugged ship available." [59]

The target arrays were different for each test. The Able target array consisted of 78 vessels the Baker array consisted of 75. After the several vessels sank in the Able test, some of the ships in the "fringes" of the test area were shifted closer to the zeropoint to replace the lost vessels. Additionally, other vessels were placed farther out in the Able array to spare them from major damage since they were to be the primary targets in the Baker test among these ships was the carrier Saratoga. [60] The Able test detonation, originally scheduled for May 15, was postponed six weeks to allow, according to some opinions, for Congressional observers to be on the scene. The Able test bomb, nicknamed "Gilda" for the recent Rita Hayworth motion picture of that name, and stencilled with the likeness of Miss Hayworth, was dropped from the B-29, "Dave's Dream," on the morning of July 1, 1946. The bomb missed the designated zeropoint, Nevada, probably because of, according to some experts, poor aerodynamics caused by its high-drag tail fin structure, detonating instead 2,130 feet from the target and 518 feet directly above and 50 yards off the bow of the attack transport Gilliam. [61]

Journalists aboard LCT-52 inspect USS Independence after Able. (National Archives)

The Able burst sank five vessels: the attack transports Gilliam and Carlisle, closest to the detonation, sank almost immediately. Two nearby destroyers, Anderson and Lamson, were also severely damaged and sank within hours, followed by the Japanese light cruiser Sakawa, which sank on July 2. Other vessels were severely damaged, the most dramatic damage occurring to the light carrier Independence and the submarine Skate, both of which were for all intents and purposes wrecked. Six ships were immobilized, and 23 small fires were started on various ships. The badly damaged ships were all within a 1000-yard radius of the zeropoint along with Hughes (DD-410), which was among the more damaged destroyers and later required beaching to avoid its sinking, the battleships Arkansas and Nagato, ARDC-13, and YO-160, all badly burnt and battered. The fears of the physicists opposed to the tests--that contrary to expectations the results would be less than cataclysmic, thus creating a false sense of security--were realized. The New York Times' account of Able noted that while the bomb had exploded with a flash "ten times brighter than the sun" over the target ships, "only two were sunk, one was capsized, and eighteen were damaged." [62] The foreign observers were unimpressed, reported the press the Russian observers shrugged their shoulders and the Brazilian observer said he felt "so so" about the blast. [63] Of the 114 press representatives at Bikini, only 75 stayed for the Baker test.

Able's mushroom cloud towers over Bikini Atoll. (National Archives)

Able, from Bikini Island. USS Saratoga 's deck burst into flame at the far left. (National Archives)

LSM-60 suspended the bomb detonated during Baker. (U.S. Naval Institute)

Following the Able detonation, Navy teams moved in to fight fires, reboard the ships, and tow sinking vessels to Enyu for beaching. As this work progressed, diving commenced on the sunken ships for "a full assessment of the damage done by the air blast." [64] The first dives were made on July 7, when Gilliam was dived on, followed by Carlisle, Anderson, and Lamson. Inspection of the ships, recovery of test gauges (particularly from Gilliam, which was the highest priority for instrumentation recovery because the ship was the accidental zeropoint for the blast), and underwater photography continued until July 14, when attention turned to the preparations for the Baker test. [65] Expectations for greater damage during the Baker test were high Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, touring the target ships after Able, when asked why the first detonation had not sunk the entire fleet, remarked that "heavily built and heavily armored ships are difficult to sink unless they sustain underwater damage." [66] News reports and military and public interest focused on blast effect. The effect of radiation was for the most part ignored a short news item filed by the Associated Press on July 15 noted that the test animals were "dying like flies. Animals that appear healthy and have a normal blood count one day, 'drop off the next day,' an officer said. " [67] This scarcely noted account was a harbinger of the future.

Baker blasts out of the lagoon a second after detonation. Saratoga is visible in the white blast slick as the column forms nearby. (U.S. Naval Historical Center)

The Baker test bomb, nicknamed "Helen of Bikini," was placed in a steel caisson manufactured by Los Alamos from the conning tower of USS Salmon (SS-182) which had been scrapped in April 1946. With "Made in New Mexico" chalked on its side by Carl Hatch, U.S. Senator from New Mexico and an observer at the tests, the caisson was suspended 90 feet below the well in the steel landing ship LSM-60. [68] The bomb was detonated on the morning of July 25, 1946. The blast displaced 2.2 million cubic yards and created a 25-foot deep crater with a maximum diameter of 1,100 yards and a minimum diameter of 600 yards the segment of the crater deeper than 20 feet covered an area 250 to 700 yards in diameter. It was estimated that about 500,000 cubic yards of material fell back into the crater, with the remainder dispersed throughout the lagoon. "A layer of sand and mud several feet thick was deposited on the bottom. " and a diver working on the port side of Arkansas after the blast reportedly sank into soft, pulverized coral and mud up to his armpits. [69] The Baker blast--or the two million tons of displaced water from the cloud that fell back into the lagoon--sank an additional nine vessels, some almost immediately. LSM-60 was destroyed except for a few fragments of the ship that fell on other vessels, no trace of the landing ship was ever found. The bomb's detonation point was within 500 yards of the location of the sunken Lamson and Sakawa. The failure to locate these vessels during subsequent dive surveys of the lagoon indicates the bomb, moored at a depth of 90 feet in a 180-foot deep lagoon, probably did considerable damage, or possibly completely destroyed them, depending on each wreck's exact location.

Arkansas, the submarines Apogon, Pilotfish, and Skipjack, and the auxiliaries YO-160 and ARDC-13 sank almost immediately. The badly damaged carrier Saratoga, listing but too radioactive to be boarded by salvage teams, sank within hours, followed by the Japanese battleship Nagato, and LCT-1114. Within the next few days, five other landing craft that were damaged in the Baker test were scuttled in Bikini lagoon another was taken outside of the atoll and sunk. The destroyer Hughes and the attack transport Fallon, badly damaged and sinking, were taken in tow and beached. The detonation effect of Baker was greater than Able reports and interest were rekindled, although total destruction by the bomb had once more been averted. One reporter, William L. Laurence, the "dean" of atomic reporters who had witnessed the detonation of the Trinity test bomb, the Nagasaki bomb drop, and the two Bikini blasts, described a new public attitude as a result of Operation Crossroads. Returning to the United States, Laurence found that while "before Bikini the world stood in awe of this new cosmic force. since Bikini this feeling. has largely evaporated and has been supplanted by a sense of relief unrelated to the grim reality of the situation." Laurence felt this was because of the desire of the average citizen "to grasp the flimsiest means that would enable him to regain his peace of mind. He had expected one bomb to sink the entire Bikini fleet, kill all the animals. make a hole in the bottom of the ocean and create tidal waves. He had even been told that everyone participating in the test would die. Since none of these happened, he is only too eager to conclude that the atomic bomb is, after all, just another weapon." [70]

Laurence himself, as well as nearly everyone else involved in the tests, failed to realize or report the insidious effect of the bomb. Far deadlier than the actual blast, in that time of "limited yield" nuclear weapons, was the lasting effect of radiation, confirming once again the fears and prophecies of the nuclear scientists that even seemingly "undamaged" vessels could and would suffer from radioactive contamination. Decontamination by scrubbing the ships "clean" was only partially successful. The effort to decontaminate the target battleship New York was a case in point:

The main deck forward had not been touched as yet. I made a careful survey of the deck, finding the intensity to vary a great deal in a matter of feet. One gets the impression that fission products have become most fixed in the tarry caulking of the planking and in rusty spots in the metal plates. When the survey was complete the Chief turned his booted, sweating, profane and laughing crew loose with brushes, water, and a barrel of lye. Yet when the hydraulics were done and the deck rinsed clean again, another survey showed the invisible emanations to be present. The portly Chief stood watching the dial of my Geiger counter, completely bewildered. The deck was clean, anybody could see that, clean enough for the Admiral himself to eat his breakfast off of. So what was all this goddam radioactivity? [71]

While no extensive deposit of long-life radioactive materials were found on the target ships after the Able test, the Baker test detonation generated more radiation even the salt in the water, for example, was transformed into a short-lived radioactive material. However, plutonium and other long-lived fission products that emitted beta and gamma rays were the major problem. The reboarding of ships after Able was undertaken after a few hours in some cases. After Baker, only five vessels at the extreme ends of two vessel strings could be boarded. Access to the rest of the target array was denied. By July 26 and 27, crews were able to beach Hughes and Fallon, which were sinking, "but both vessels were radioactive to the extent that taking them in tow. required fast work. The forecastle of Hughes, for example, had a tolerance time of about eight minutes." [72] By July 27 and 28, surveys of all remaining target vessels were made from distances of 50 to 100 feet.

Initial efforts to decontaminate the ships were hampered by the fact that no plans had been prepared for organized decontamination "the nature and extent of the contamination of the targets was completely unexpected." [73] The first efforts, with the beached Hughes, employed Navy fireboats to wash down the exteriors of the ships because "water might take up some of the radioactive materials in solution." Washing down reduced the radioactivity some fifty percent on Hughes, bringing the exposure Roentgens rates on it down to 9.6 R/day on the forecastle and 36 R/day at the stern! Subsequent washings had no measurable effect. Foamite, a water-mixed firefighting foam, was applied and washed off two washings on Hughes reduced the radiation to levels varying between 2.0 to 8.5 R/day. [74]

Radioactive material adhered to the ships' wooden decks, paint, tar, canvas, rust, and grease while some of it could be washed off, the only effective means of removal was sandblasting the ships to bare metal, stripping off every piece of planking, and bathing brass and copper with nitric acid. Washing, as the experience with New York demonstrated, did not significantly reduce radiation levels, particularly with crews limited to short periods of exposure. Only complete removal of the contaminated surface area reduced the radiation. The Navy discovered, too, that "painting over the surface produced no reduction in [beta gamma] activity. " [75] The problem of decontamination was serious the Navy required a reduction of radiation intensity to allow reboarding for instrument recovery and inspection for periods of at least two hours. At the same time, it was hoped that in two-hour shifts crew members could "apply detailed scrubbing, abrasive, and paint removal action as necessary to reduce the radioactivity sufficiently to permit continuous habitation of the ships." [76] "Lightly" contaminated ships-- Conyngham, Wainwright, Carteret, and Salt Lake City --were the first vessels subjected to "detailed decontamination" on July 30.

A Navy tug sprays down USS New York after Baker to decontaminate the battleship. (U.S. Naval Institute)

By August 5, several ships were being pumped out and "secondary decontamination" of others followed. On August 24, inspection efforts commenced on several target ships, including dives made on Saratoga, Arkansas, and Pilotfish that continued until August 30. The submarine Skipjack was successfully raised by divers on September 2, and some instruments were recovered from the sunken ships, but work time was limited by radiation hazards. On August 10, orders were issued to cease decontamination efforts at Bikini and prepare the target ships for towing to Kwajalein. The decision was reached when it was discovered that decontamination generally was not working and was extremely hazardous the final straw was "the discovery of alpha emitters from samples inside Prinz Eugen" which were not detectable with the monitoring instruments in use at Bikini. Further investigation showed "probable widespread presence of the alpha emitters. even in spaces not obviously contaminated. Since no alpha detectors for general field use were available and the alpha emitters are one of the most poisonous chemicals known, their presence was considered a serious and indeterminate menace. " [77] The priority of work shifted "toward recovery of instruments and clearance of those ships designated for use in Test Charlie." [78] This ten-vessel test (five submarines and five capital ships) at the southwestern end of the atoll and seaward of Oruk Island, scheduled for March 1947, was later cancelled by the President.

"The chief turned his booted, sweating, profane, and laughing crew loose with brushes, water, and a barrel of lye." Decontamination efforts aboard Prinz Eugen. (National Archives)

The "severe" contamination problem was kept as quiet as possible according to an August 10 memorandum from the Manhattan Engineer District of the Army Corps of Engineers observer, Col. A. W. Betts, to his boss, Brig. Gen. Kenneth D. Nichols, "the classification of this memo can only be explained by the fact that the Navy considers this contamination business the toughest part of Test Baker. They had no idea it would be such a problem and they are breaking their necks out here to find some solution." [79] Gross decontamination efforts continued that enabled the Navy to complete the removal of test instruments and records, technical inspections, and salvage operations however, the report on radiological decontamination concluded that these efforts, "although successful to a certain extent in the limited application they received, revealed conclusively that removal of radioactive contamination of the type encountered in the target vessels in Test Baker cannot be accomplished satisfactorily. " [80] On August 25, 1946, the Navy's Director of Ship Material, in charge of the inspections, "felt that all significant information had been recorded and reported that the technical inspection phase at Bikini was complete." That day he and his staff departed for Kwajalein "to establish facilities there for continued examination and radiological re-checks of the target ships." [81] Some of the vessels had departed as early as August 19, and now the other ships followed by August 29, only 19 target vessels--the destroyer Mustin, YOG-83, and 16 landing craft, were left at Bikini, along with 18 salvage vessels.

Thirteen target ships were sent to Pearl Harbor or to the West Coast "for further study of damage and for development of radiological decontamination and safety techniques by the Navy. it is the policy of the Navy to carry out an aggressive active program of radiological and atomic defense research to apply the lessons of Crossroads." [82] The study of the ships led to certain modifications in the construction of new naval vessels, though after World War II the United States built few large vessels. Rounding of ship surfaces and wash-down systems to spray a vessel subjected to fallout and facilitate the rinsing off of the ship were the only Crossroads-induced changes for passive defense against nuclear weapons. The primary naval modifications after Crossroads were measures to take the bomb to sea as a weapon, leading to nuclear-capable carriers, guided missile cruisers, and submarines. Additionally, there was a demand for new designs of nuclear weapons suitable for carrying in these vessels. In an atmosphere of no adequate defense against nuclear deployment, the Navy, like the rest of the military, embraced nuclear deterrence through the adoption of and subsequent escalation of use of nuclear weapons at sea as a defense.

Decontamination efforts at Kwajalein ceased in September 1946 work after that focused on removing ammunition aboard the ships. On one such detail, the light carrier Independence was visited and described:

The Independence is a ghost ship--its flight deck blown up, leaving the thick oak planks broken like so much boxwood its hangar deck blasted down and only the skeleton of its sides remaining. Gun turrets and gangways, twisted, crushed, dangle oversides, grating and creaking with the roll of the ship. Doors are smashed in and jammed tight against the bulkheads, or blown out altogether, and the rusty water sloshes aimlessly back and forth across the rusty decks. For the most part the radiation is not particularly high, although sometimes these rusty pools will set your earphones singing and shoot your indicator needles off scale. [83]

A confidential memorandum from the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, (CINCPAC), dated September 4, 1946, authorized the sinking of contaminated vessels at Kwajalein. [84] The same day, Admiral Blandy, back in Washington, reported that "only 9 of 92 ships escaped at Bikini," noting that "all but nine. were either sunk, damaged or contaminated by radioactivity," naming the submarines Tuna, Searaven, Dentuda, and Parche, and the transports Cortland, Niagara, Bladen, Fillmore, and Geneva as the nine undamaged ships. The report named 45 vessels that had been decommissioned after the tests. Blandy also reported he had sought and received permission to sink "a number of the small landing craft damaged in the experiments, pointing out the dangers of possible lingering radioactivity and also. the cost of repairs and movement from the Marshall Islands. " [85]

Pennsylvania , "too hot to handle," is scuttled off Kwajalein, February 10, 1948. (National Archives)

The target ships at Kwajalein remained there for two years in a caretaker status. Soon after the tests, on December 22, 1946, one vessel, the German cruiser Prinz Eugen, capsized and sank and was left in place. Another target vessel, LCI-327, stranded on Bascombe (Mek) Island in Kwajalein Atoll it could not be freed and was "destroyed" in place on October 30, 1947. Some of the ships--the submarines, for the most part, and some of the landing craft--were sufficiently "cool" to return to duty as training vessels. The other vessels, contaminated by the tests, were subjected to additional analysis but for the most part were simply left as a ghost fleet that was literally too hot to handle. In June 1947, Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) established a policy for handling and control of "radiologically contaminated material from Crossroads." Noting the "real and ever present hazard," the CNO dictated that materials were to be removed only for carefully considered testing, that they be carefully controlled and handled, and they not be "retained indefinitely. but shall be disposed of, when the tests are completed, by sinking at sea or by replacement aboard the target vessel." [86]

Eventually, this policy was adhered to for the ships themselves. On August 30, 1947, the Chief of Naval Operations reiterated CINCPAC's September 1946 dictate that all ships "found radiologically unsafe" were to be sunk at sea in deep water. [87] By this time decisions had been made to separate the target ships, as well as some contaminated support vessels, into groups. The majority of ships, too hot to be decontaminated, were left at Kwajalein, while 13 others were taken to Pearl Harbor, Seattle, and San Francisco for decontamination studies the three ships towed to San Francisco were Independence, Crittenden, and Gasconade. The six surviving submarines-- Dentuda, Tuna, Parche, Searaven, Skate, and Skipjack were sent to Mare Island Naval Shipyard and the San Francisco Naval Shipyard at Hunter's Point. Dentuda and Parche were considered only "radiologically suspect" and were cleared for preservation and reuse. Four of the submarines could not be decontaminated Skipjack, Searaven, Skate, and Tuna were sunk as targets off San Clemente, California, in 1948.

Pearl Harbor received the battleships Nevada and New York. Puget Sound Naval Shipyard received the destroyer Hughes and the cruisers Pensacola and Salt Lake City. In 1948 all three were towed to sea and sunk as targets in deep water. [88] Fifty of the target vessels were sunk as targets for conventional weapons (surface bombardment and aerial attack) 36 were sunk in the vicinity of Kwajalein. New York and Nevada were sunk off Hawaii in deep water Hughes and Pensacola were sunk off the Pacific coast of Washington, and Independence, Crittenden, Gasconade, Salt Lake City, and the four submarines previously mentioned were sunk off California. Nine ships are known to have escaped scuttling or sinking: two submarines, Dentuda and Parche two LCIs were sold for scrap along with one LCM and four attack transports-- Cortland, Fillmore, Geneva, and Niagara were transferred to the Maritime Commission and ultimately scrapped by them. The fate of 13 landing craft (five LCIs, three LCMs, and five LCVPs) is unknown. [89] If they were scrapped later, this would raise the number of "survivors" of the target fleet to 22 vessels. Although a fourth of the total feet numerically, these ships included only two combatant ships and a small fraction of the total tonnage assembled at Bikini for the two blasts. The contaminated or "suspect" support vessels present better statistics by the beginning of 1947, 80 of the 159 support ships were granted "final radiological clearance." By the end of the year, every one of the 159 was cleared, though some, like the destroyer Laffey, required drydocking in floating drydocks (to avoid contaminating permanent onshore facilities), sandblasting and repainting of all underwater surfaces, and acid washing and partial replacement of salt-water piping and evaporators in the ship. [90]

The message of Bikini, while not understood by the public at the time, and only grasped later in hindsight, was clear to the military, which had seen a fleet survive physically but nonetheless lost forever to radioactive contamination. Blast effect, while impressive, paled next to radiation effect: "From a military viewpoint, the atomic bomb's ability to kill human beings or to impair, through injury, their ability to make war is of paramount importance. Thus the overall result of a bomb's explosion upon the crew. is of greater interest. " Therefore, it followed that,

If used in numbers, atomic bombs not only can nullify any nation's military effort, but can demolish its social and economic structure and prevent their re-establishment for long periods of time. With such weapons, especially if employed in conjunction with other weapons of mass destruction, as, for example, pathogenic bacteria, it is quite possible to depopulate vast areas of the earth's surface, leaving only vestigial remnants of man's material works. [91]

Ironically, the vestigial remnants of man's material works in the form of the target ships were the first tangible demonstrations of the power of the atomic bomb and the futility of defense against it as Paul Boyer notes, an awakening slowly resulted from "the navy's determined, frustrating, and ultimately futile efforts to decontaminate the surviving ships by scrubbing, scraping, and sandblasting. the pariah feet of ghostly radioactive ships. " [92]

Public awareness and wariness began to surface in 1948. That year, David Bradley, M.D., a member of the radiological safety team at Bikini, published his diary, written during the tests as the book, No Place to Hide, which was syndicated in a pre-publication release by the Atlantic Monthly, condensed by The Reader's Digest, made into a Book-of-the-Month Club release, and stayed on The New York Times best sellers list for ten weeks. No Place to Hide was a forceful book that subtly told the real message of Bikini Bradley felt that the Crossroads tests, "hastily planned and hastily carried out. may have only sketched in gross outlines. the real problem nevertheless, these outlines show pretty clearly the shadow of the colossus which looms behind tomorrow." [93] Bradley also was drawn to the analogy of the target ships at Kwajalein, including "the beautiful Prinz Eugen, once the pride of the German feet and as sleek and cavalier a ship as ever sailed the seas," intact and unbroken by the blasts but "nevertheless dying of a malignant disease for which there is no help." [94] The cure was sinking the ships. In February 1949, The Washington Post published a column by Drew Pearson that termed the test results a "major naval disaster." Pearson reported that as of 1949, "of the 73 ships involved in the Bikini tests, more than 61 were sunk or destroyed. This is an enormous loss from only two bombs. The aircraft carrier Independence . is now anchored off San Francisco, permanently destroyed--usable only as a testing ground to determine the possibility of removing radioactivity. This is still dangerous two years after the ship was attacked." [95]

It is strangely prophetic that almost all of the target ships were ultimately taken to sea and scuttled in deep water, joining their sisters sunk in the more shallow waters of Bikini. Once too radioactive to visit, these vessels, with the beta or gamma activity reduced due to radionuclide decay are now the focus of a new look at them and at Crossroads.

Ironically, the "nuclear nomads" of the Pacific, presently the absentee owners and managers of many of the vessels from the sunken feet of Operation Crossroads, were, like the ships themselves, harbingers of a nuclear future. In 1948, David Bradley wrote of his 1946 visit to the displaced Bikinians on Rongerik Island. They "are not the first, nor will they be the last, to be left homeless and impoverished by the inexorable bomb. They have no choice in the matter, and very little understanding of it. But in this perhaps they are not so different from us all." [96] In 1978, Tomaki Juda, leader of the Bikinians, testified before Congress that his people had been relocated on the premise that the tests were for the good of mankind and that they were to be like "the Children of Israel, whom the Lord led into the Promised Land." Juda noted, sadly, that the Bikinians "were naive then. We are, sadly, more akin to the Children of Israel when they left Egypt and wandered through the desert for 40 years." [97] Now, 44 years later, the Bikinians and the rest of the world more fully understand the meaning and legacy of Operation Crossroads, a legacy that is reflected in twenty-three vessels that lie accessible to divers at two Pacific atolls.

THE 1947 SCIENTIFIC RESURVEY

In early 1947, plans for a scientific resurvey of Bikini during that summer were drafted by the Joint Crossroads Committee. Adm. W. S. Parsons, the Navy's Director of Atomic Defense, forwarded a proposal to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on April 9, 1947. A program of biological study was necessary "in order to determine the long-term effects of Test Baker on fish and other marine organisms including corals and calcareous algae. and to obtain data on which to base a decision relative to possible resettlement of the native population." [98] At the same time, diving on some of the sunken target ships was proposed to "make additional diving observations" and retrieve test data from Crossroads instruments abandoned in 1946. Specifically mentioned as high priorities for reassessment were Saratoga, Nagato, Pilotfish, Arkansas, and Apogon. [99]

The plan was approved, and a group of scientists and technicians from the Navy, Army, the Smithsonian Institution, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other unnamed institutions was placed under the command of Capt. Christian L. Engleman, USN, the Project Director at Bikini. Overall command of the resurvey ships was given to Capt. H. Henry Hederman, USN. Both men were Crossroads veterans. While a classified operation, the resurvey was publicly announced because of a strong desire by the Joint Chiefs to stress "the story of cooperation that exists between civilian and military agencies in the Bikini resurvey work. Proper handling of the Bikini Resurvey story can do much to acquaint the American public with the long-range value of Operation Crossroads." [100]

The Bikini Scientific Resurvey team lands at Bikini, 1947. (U.S. Naval Institute)

The Bikini Resurvey task group steamed from Pearl Harbor to Bikini on the transport USS Chilton (APA-38), the submarine rescue vessel USS Coucal (ASR-8), LSM-382, and LCI(L)-615 on July 1, 1947, arriving on July 15 and remaining until the first of September. The operations plan that they sailed under included an effort, directed by Lieut. Cmdr. F. B. Ewing, USN, to make detailed observations of Saratoga, Nagato, Gilliam, and Apogon. "Other vessels, including Arkansas and Pilotfish will be inspected if time permits." The inspection plans called for extensive underwater photography and structural inspections "in an effort to determine the exact cause of sinking." [101] The only specific instrument recovery noted was from Nagato. Four instruments, an ionization gage, two linear time pressure recorders, and a diaphragm gage, "the exact locations of which are known," were to be recovered at the discretion of Lieut. Cmdr. Ewing. Additionally, "it is believed that a portion of LSM-60 has been located. If time permits, an attempt will be made by divers to locate this portion and inspect it thoroughly for type of rupture, heat effects, and radioactivity. If practicable, an attempt will be made to raise this section for an inspection on the surface." [102]

More than 600 dives were made to study blast effects and damage on the wrecks of Saratoga, Apogon, and Pilotfish. "In addition, a cursory inspection was made of the ex-Japanese battleship Nagato." [103] The first dives made were on Saratoga on July 17, two days after the resurvey team arrived. The Navy divers reported visibility to be from 15 to 30 feet on the wrecks. However, "divers on the bottom. did have difficulty in seeing clearly because of fogs of sand and mud which were easily stirred up. " [104] Radiation levels were carefully monitored. Divers wore pencil dosimeters and three film badges--on the chest, abdomen, and leg--and when hoisted from the water, each diver was "washed down by hose before being hoisted aboard ship." [105] Radiation levels recorded ranged from "two times background (gamma) to .1 R/24 hr. (gamma), and up to .6 R/24 hr. (beta and gamma)." [106] Dive equipment was found to be lightly contaminated however, "some of the diving equipment was contaminated prior to the resurvey, which can be attributed to the fact that this equipment was used during Operation Crossroads." The source of contamination was found to be "due to contamination by coral powder from the sunken ships and sand from the lagoon bottom." [107]

Only observations were made of the ships at Bikini. Instrument recovery was not attempted since "after Baker day, recovery operations were carried on with unabated vigor and very considerable success, so that perhaps 80 percent of the instruments were recovered." [108] Instruments left behind were presumed buried on the bottom or were "by now [1947] so corroded that their readings would be useless. " A spring chronogram in the crew space, "port side, main deck, frame 16 [of Nagato] might contain a valid record on magnetic tape. It is believed, however, that recovery of this instrument would not add materially to the information at hand concerning the air blast in shot Baker." [109]

Other work accomplished by the resurvey team included detailed geological assessments of reef structures by drilling. Cores and samples were taken of the bottom of the lagoon. Scientists collected samples on the reefs to determine the "existing degree of radioactivity, or [conducted] studies concerned with habitats, food chains, and taxonomic relationships." Algae, sea urchins and other marine invertebrates, insects, birds, and mammals were collected and studied for "possible radiological or blast effects upon structure, physiological processes, fertility or normal processes of development." A radiological survey group made "a comprehensive survey of radioactivity on the reefs and islands. " [110]

At the end of August, packing of equipment began for departure. Laboratories ashore were closed and packed by August 27, and the buildings ashore were cleared and locked on August 29. A final inspection was made before the resurvey ships sailed on the 29th. The flagship of the group, USS Chilton, arrived at Pearl Harbor on September 3. The task group was dissolved on the 4th. [111] The production of the final reports was completed at the end of the year, and the three-volume Technical Report, Bikini Scientific Survey was published in December 1947 by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project.

Divers prepare to descend on an unidentified sunken ship during the 1947 resurvey. (U.S. Naval Institute)

1 W. A. Shurcliff, Bombs at Bikini: The Official Report of Operation Crossroads (New York: Wm. H. Wise & Co., Inc., 1947) p. 36.

2 Chuck Hansen, U.S. Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History (Arlington, Texas: AeroFax, Inc., 1988) p. 5.

3 Eugene Kinkaid, "Bikini: The Forthcoming Atomic Bomb Test in the Marshalls Will Determine the Future ot Man, Animals, Birds, Fish, Plants, and Microorganisms," Life, XX (1), July 1, 1946, p. 41. Paul Boyer, in By the Bomb's Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985) analyzes the response to the bomb.

4 Shurcliff, Bombs at Bikini, p. ix.

6 Director of Ship Material, Joint Task Force One, "Historical Report: Atomic Bomb Tests Able and Baker Operation Crossroads," (1947) Operational Archives, Naval Historical Center, Vol. 1, p. xiii. Hereafter cited as Director of Ship Material, "Historical Report."

7 Vice Admiral W. H. P. Blandy, "Operation Crossroads Background Material," distributed to U.S. Naval Forces in Europe by the Public Information Section, JTF 1. Cited in Thomas N. Daly, "Crossroads at Bikini," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 42, No. 7 (July 1986), p. 68.

8 Blandy appeared on CBS radio youth forum broadcast sponsored by the New York Herald-Tribune on April 13, 1946. Cited in Daly, Ibid., p. 70.

9 Shurcliff, Bombs at Bikini, p. 10. Brian McMahon, junior senator from Connecticut, was chairman of the Senate's Special Committee on Atomic Energy. McMahon's committee held public hearings in Washington, and on December 20, 1945, McMahon introduced his Atomic Energy Act bill. Public hearings followed, and on April 19, 1946, the bill was reported to the Senate. Passed on June 1, 1946, the bill was sent to the House Military Affairs Committee, which referred it to the House on June 13. The House passed the bill with amendments on June 20 subsequently most changes were removed in a joint conference. The bill was signed into law by President Harry S. Truman on August 1, 1946, as the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (Public Law 585, 79th Congress, 1st Session). The bill passed control of atomic energy from the Manhattan Engineer District, and hence the military, to the newly created Atomic Energy Commission, created a military liaison committee, and instituted security provisions to protect against the release of "classified" nuclear secrets. See Vincent C. Jones, Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb: The United States Army in World War II, Special Studies (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1985), pp. 576-578.

10 Shurcliff, Bombs at Bikini, p. 9. A dispatch by Hanson W. Baldwin to The New York Times, published in the paper's July 25, 1946 edition, reported that the target array for Baker, a "tactical situation of the fleet in harbor. was frankly patterned after an opportunity in the past war that was never realized," namely an atomic bombing of Truk. Baldwin noted the bomb was not used because of the Japanese fleet's near destruction and "no concentration of enemy ships sufficiently large enough to warrant the use of the atomic bomb was ever detected." p. 2. Trinity, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki came as soon as active material and other components were ready--no earlier detonation was ever possible.

11 According to Paul S. Dull, A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy (1941-1945) (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1978), Appendix A, "Name, Date of Completion, and Fate of Major Ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy," pp. 343-350. The remaining ships, some of them half-sunk at Kure or practically inoperable (such as Nagato at Yokosuka) were one battleship, two carriers, two light carriers (CVLs), two heavy cruisers, two light cruisers (CLs), and thirty-eight destroyers.

12 Shurcliff, Bombs at Bikini, pp. 10-11.

13 Director of Ship Material, "Historical Report," Volume 1, p. viii.

15 The New York Times, August 25, 1945, p. 2.

16 Shurcliff, Bombs at Bikini, p. 11.

17 The New York Times, October 24, 1945, p. 4.

18 The New York Times, December 11, 1946, pp. 1, 3.

19 Shurcliff, Bombs at Bikini, p. 9.

21 Shurcliff, Bombs at Bikini, p. 7.

22 Hansen, U.S. Nuclear Weapons, p. 50.

23 W. A. Shurcliff, "Technical History of Operation Crossroads," Vol. 1, (1946) copy on file at the National Technical Information Service, p. 5.3. Hereafter cited as Shurcliff, "Technical History."

24 Director of Ship Material, "Historical Report," Vol. 1, pp. 68-69.

27 Ibid., p. 69. Also see Vice Admiral E. L. Cochrane, USN, "Crossroads and Ship Design," Shipmate, (September 1946) pp. 9-10.

29 Shurcliff, "Technical History," p. 6.3.

32 Shurcliff, "Technical History," p. 6.5.

34 Shurcliff, "Technical History," p. 6.6.

36 Director of Ship Material, "Historical Report," pp. 72-73.

39 The New York Times, January 25, 1946, pp. 1, 4.

40 The New York Times, March 20, 1946, p. 10. The Bureau of Ships, when totalling the costs of the target ships, was ordered not to include the cost of armament. Also untallied were modernization, modifications, and repair costs.

41 The New York Times, March 24, 1946, p. 4.

42 Letter, John P. Howe to the President, April 16, 1946, filed in Protest Answers, Joint Task Force One, Records of the Defense Atomic Support Agency, National Archives Record Group 374.

43 The New York Times, April 17, 1946, p. 5.

44 Letter, Brig. Gen. T. J. Betts, USA, to Alexander Wilde, April 2, 1946, filed in Protest Answers, National Archives Record Group 374.

45 Letter, Max Ladewasser and Gang to the President, April 14, 1946, filed in Protest Letters, National Archives Record Group 374.

46 The New York Times, January 26, 1946, p. 1.

47 Letter, Brig. Gen. T. J. Betts, USA, to Peter Brambir, March 21, 1946, filed in Protest Answers, National Archives Record Group 374.

48 Letter, Brig. Gen. T. J. Betts, USA, to Lt. Herbert B. Leopold, February 11, 1946, filed in Protest Answers, National Archives Record Group 374.

49 "The Effect of the Atomic Bomb on Naval Power," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists of Chicago, Vol. 1, No. 5 (February 15, 1946), p. 1.

50 Letter, R. Lee Page to George Lyons, Commissioner of Atomic Research, Navy Department, March 15, 1946, filed in Protest Letters, National Archives Record Group 374.

51 Letter, Jeanne Robinson to Adm. W. H. P. Blandy, May 1, 1946, filed in Protest Letters, National Archives Record Group 374.

52 Shurcliff, "Technical History," p. 6.7.

53 Shurcliff, "Technical History," p. 6.4 lists 94 vessels, but neglects to include LSM-60, the bomb-carrying ship for Baker, as well as one landing craft.

55 The New York Times, July 1, 1946, p. 3.

56 Shurcliff, "Technical History," p. 6.7.

59 Shurcliff, "Technical History," p. 6.10.

61 Hansen, U.S. Nuclear Weapons, p. 31, 38n.7. General Paul Tibbets, then commander of the Composite 509th Group, which dropped the bomb, blamed the Able miss on crew error. See Paul Tibbets, The Tibbets Story (New York: Stein and Day, 1978). In a telephone interview on December 20, 1990, the pilot, Woody P. Swancutt stressed the high level of training he and his crew had received, the considerable experience of the bombardier, Harold Wood, and post-Able tests with the same crew and bomb sight that consistently dropped "Fat Man" casings close to the target.

62 The New York Times, July 1, 1946, p. 1.

64 Director of Ship Material, "Historical Report," Vol. 1, p. 44.

66 The New York Times, July 2, 1946, p. 3.

67 The New York Times, July 15, 1946, p. 3.

68 See "Helen of Bikini," Time Magazine, August 5, 1946, p. 27. The naming of the two Bikini bombs is a further indication of the need to "humanize" the bomb through a mechanopomorphic process that began with the "Fat Man" and "Little Boy" weapons dropped on Japan. The female names for the Bikini bombs, particularly "Gilda" and its reference to Rita Hayworth, are part of what Paul Boyer terms the "complex psychological link between atomic destruction and Eros" that was evidenced by burlesque houses advertising "Atomic Bomb dancers" in August 1945, the "unveiling" by Hollywood of scantily-clad starlet Linda Christian at poolside as the anatomic bomb" in Life Magazine in September 1945, the French bathing suit "Atome" (quickly dubbed the "Bikini" when introduced in 1946) and the 1947 pop song "Atom Bomb Baby," which Boyer notes made the Bomb a metaphor for sexual arousal. See Boyer, By the Bomb's Early Light, pp. 11-12.

69 Shurcliff, "Technical History," p. 28.7. Also see the Washington Star, August 22, 1946.

70 The New York Times, August 4, 1946, p. 3.

71 David J. Bradley, No Place to Hide, 1946/1984 (Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 1983), pp. 109-110.

72 Director of Ship Material, "Technical Inspection Report: Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels," Vol. I, p. 4. Hereafter cited as "Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels." For a summary of the radiological decontamination effort, also see C. Sharp Cook, "The Legacy of Crossroads," Naval History, Vol. II, No. 4, Fall 1988, p. 28.

73 "Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels," Vol. I, p. 4.

78 Director of Ship Material, "Historical Report," p. 55.

79 Memorandum, Col. A. W. Betts, USACOE, to Brig. Gen. K. D. Nichols, MED, USACOE, August 10, 1946. F-3-5, Test Baker Results, Box 26, National Archives Record Group 377, Records of the Manhattan Engineer District.

80 "Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels," Vol. I, p. 17.

81 Director of Ship Material, "Historical Report," p. 57.

82 Memorandum, CNO to CINCPAC, "Removal of Equipment and Supplies from Contaminated CROSSROADS Target Ships," February 18, 1947, Serial 034P36, Operational Archives, Naval Historical Center.

83 Bradley, No Place to Hide, pp. 143-144.

84 Cited in "Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels," Vol. III, p. 14.

85 The New York Times, September 5, 1946, p. 7.

86 Memorandum, CNO to Chiefs of the Bureau of Ships, Bureau of Ordnance, Bureau of Aeronautics, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Bureau of Yards and Docks, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, "Handling and Control of Radiologically Contaminated Material from CROSSROADS," June 10, 1947, Serial 0138P36, Operational Archives, Naval Historical Center.

87 Cook, "The Legacy of Crossroads," p. 29.

88 A. G. Nelson, Capt. USN, "Crossroads Target Ships," Memorandum, NNTPR #24-78, May 25, 1978, Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations NAVSEA Shipbuilding Support Office, "US Vessels Involved in Operation Crossroads," NAVSEASHPSO, Philadelphia, n.d. and James L. Mooney, ed. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, eight volumes (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959-1981).

89 See, for example, "Atom Bombed Ship Undergoes Study," in The New York Times, May 11, 1947, p. 19, which discusses the sinking of New York as a conventional weapons target as the battleship's probable fate. Parche 's conning tower is now on display at the Pacific Fleet Submarine Memorial Museum at Pearl Harbor.

90 Cook, "The Legacy of Crossroads," pp. 31-32.

91 "The Evaluation of the Atomic Bomb as a Military Weapon: The Final Report of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Evaluation Board for Operation Crossroads," (June 30, 1947), CCS 471.6, 10-15-46, Section 9, Part 1, p. 60, 73 (top quote). National Archives Record Group 218.

92 Boyer, By the Bomb's Early Light, p. 92.

93 Bradley, No Place to Hide, pp. 165-166.

95 Drew Pearson, "Bikini Naval Losses Disaster," The Washington Post, February 18, 1949.

96 Bradley, No Place to Hide, p. 163.

97 Cited in Jonathan M. Weisgall, "The Nuclear Nomads of Bikini," Foreign Policy, Vol. XXVIV (Summer 1980), p. 98. Also see William S. Ellis, "A Way of Life Lost: Bikini," National Geographic (June 1986), pp. 813-834.

98 Memorandum to Op-36 from Op-33 and Op-38 (Parsons), April 9, 1947. Serial 106P36, Operational Archives, Naval Historical Center.

99 Ibid., attached draft memorandum from the Joint Crossroads Committee to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of War.

100 "Bikini Resurvey Operation Plan 1-47, Annex L, Public Information Plan," National Archives Record Group 374, Entry 4B, Box 156, Folder A4.

101 Ibid., Annex D, "Sunken Ship Inspection Plan."

103 "Bikini Backtalk," 10 September 1947, Vol. I, No. 16. Copy on file in RG 374, Box 28, Folder 212.

104 "Report of the Director Ship Material," in "Technical Report, Bikini Scientific Resurvey" (Washington, D.C.: Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, 1947) Vol. III, p. 1. Hereafter cited as "Report of Director of Ship Material."

108 Memorandum, Bureau of Ordnance to Chief of Naval Operations, 15 June 1947, Serial F141-6(49). Copy published in "Report of Director of Ship Material."

110 "Operations," in "Technical Report, Bikini Scientific Resurvey," Vol. I, p. 67.

TABLE ONE: SHIPS LOST DURING OPERATION CROSSROADS TESTING AT BIKINI ATOLL LAGOON

BAKER TEST: USS Saratoga (CV-3), Lexington Class

BAKER TEST: USS Arkansas (BB-33), New York Class
HIJMS Nagato , Nagato Class

ABLE TEST: HIJMS Sakawa, Agano Class*

ABLE TEST: USS Anderson (DD-411), Sims Class*
USS Lamson (DD-367), Mahan Class*

USS Apogon (SS-308), Balao Class
USS Pilotfish (SS-386), Balao Class

ABLE TEST: Gilliam (APA-57), Gilliam Class
Carlisle (APA-69), Gilliam Class

AUXILIARIES AND LANDING CRAFT

ARDC-13
LCM-4
LCT-414 (scuttled after)
LCT-812 (scuttled after)
LCT-1114
LCT-1175
LCT-1187 (scuttled after)
LCT-1237 (scuttled after)
LCVP-10
LSM-60 (completely destroyed)
YO-160

TABLE TWO: VESSELS LOST INSIDE KWAJALEIN ATOLL LAGOON IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE CROSSROADS TESTS CURRENTLY AT DEPTHS ACCESSIBLE TO SCUBA

USS Prinz Eugen (IX-300), ex-KMS Prinz Eugen

Boldface indicates this vessel was documented by NPS SCRU during August 1989 and/or May 1990 Survey (includes analysis of USN ROV Survey).

*At the time this report went to press, the remains of three additional vessels were discovered at Bikini. They have not been evaluated but it is probable based on descriptions that they are the two destroyers and Sakawa.


USS Kwajalein - History

The Momsen (DDG 92) is the U.S. Navy's 42nd Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer and was named in honor of Vice Admiral Charles B. "Swede" Momsen (1896-1967) who made many contributions to the Navy such as the invention of the Momsen Lung when he was assigned to the Bureau of Construction and Repair. Momsen was also involved in the first successful rescue of a crew of a sunken submarine, USS Squalus (SS 192), and subsequently supervised the salvage of the boat.

The keel was laid down on November 16, 2001, at Bath Iron Works in Bath, Maine. She was launched on July 19 and christened on August 9, 2003. Ms. Evelyn Momsen Hailey, the daughter of Adm. Momsen, served as sponsor of the ship. Cmdr. Edward F. Kenyon is the prospective commanding officer.

August 28, 2004 USS Momsen was commissioned during a ceremony at Panama City, Fla. She is the Navy&rsquos first ship to carry the Remote Minehunting System, an unmanned craft that seeks out underwater mines to protect the ship and Sailors.

October 8, USS Momsen arrived in San Francisco, in a Parade of Ships, to participate in Fleet Week 2004. The Parade of Ships marked the official beginning of the 24th annual celebration.

October 15, The Momsen arrived at its homeport of Naval Station (NAVSTA) Everett, Wash., after a three-day Tiger Cruise from San Francisco, completing the two-month transit from Bath, Maine.

March 31, 2005 A burial at sea ceremony was held aboard the USS Momsen, to honor the passing of Capt. Charles Bowers Momsen, Jr., the son of Adm. Charles "Swede" Momsen. The ceremony took place where the Straits of Juan the Fuca and Straits of Gergia merge into the Pacific waters of the Puget Sound.

August 19, Cmdr. Patrick M. Kelly relieved Cmdr. Edward F. Kenyon as CO of the Momsen.

January 26, 2006 The guided-missile destroyer successfully completed a two-week Joint Task Force Exercise (JTFEX), off the coast of southern California, with the USS Peleliu ESG-3, but will not deploy with the Strike Group next month.

April 6, USS Momsen departed Naval Station Everett for its maiden deployment in support of the Global War on Terrorism.

September 22, USS Momsen returned to homeport after a six-month cruise, conducting training and operations throughout Southeast Asia and the western Pacific in the U.S. 7th Fleet Area of Responsibility (AoR). The ship made six stops during the deployment, including visits to Malaysia, Guam, Republic of the Philippines, Australia and Hawaii.

November 9, DDG 92 is currently off the coast of southern California, as part of the USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) Carrier Strike Group, participating in a large-scale joint operations with the John C. Stennis (CVN 74) CSG.

February 20, 2007 The Momsen departed Everett, Wash., for a scheduled operational workups.

April 23, Cmdr. Michael C. Sparks relieved Cmdr. Patrick M. Kelly as CO of the USS Momsen.

April 24, The guided-missile destroyer transited from Pier Alfa to Pier Bravo at Naval Station Everett in preparation for its Selected Restricted Availability (SRA).

November 5, USS Momsen is currently participating in a Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX), with the USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72) CSG, in the SOCAL Op. Area.

January 20, 2008 The Momsen is currently participating in a Joint Task Force Exercise (JTFEX).

March 14, USS Momsen departed homeport for a scheduled Middle East deployment.

April 20, The guided-missile destroyer departed Muara Harbor, Brunei, after a three-day port call.

May 9, DDG 92 departed Mombasa, Kenya, after a three-day port visit.

July 1, USS Momsen departed Victoria, Seychelles, where the crew spent five days exploring its culture and conducting community relations projects.

July 27, The Momsen departed Limassol, Cyprus, after a two-day port call.

October 12, USS Momsen returned to Naval Station Everett after a seven-month deployment in support of Maritime Security Operations (MSO).

October 31, Cmdr. Robert W. Bodvake relieved Cmdr. Michael C. Sparks as comanding officer of the Momsen.

February 18, 2009 The guided-missile destroyer returned to homeport after a scheduled workup off the coast of southern California.

July 28, DDG 92 arrived in Seattle, Wash., to participate in the 60th Seafair celebration.

September 24, The Momsen pulled into Vancouver, Canada, for a three-day port visit.

July 8, 2010 Cmdr. Jay D. Wylie relieved Cmdr. Robert W. Bodvake as CO of the Momsen during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship.

July 15, USS Momsen, along with USS Shoup (DDG 86), departed Everett to participate in a Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX), off the coast of southern California, in preparation for the upcoming deployment as part of USS Abraham Lincoln CSG.

September 7, USS Momsen departed Everett for a scheduled deployment in the U.S. 5th and 7th Fleet Areas of Responsibility.

October 27, The guided-missile destroyer moored at Harbor Master Pier (HMP) West in Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, for a six-day port call.

November 4, DDG 92 pulled into Shimonoseki, Japan, for a goodwill port visit.

November 18, USS Momsen arrived in Male, Republic of Maldives, to work with the Maldives Coast Guard to improve maritime domain awareness (MDA) capabilities within the island nation's exclusive economic zone.

December 31, The Momsen recently arrived in Victoria, Seychelles, for a scheduled port call.

January 5, 2011 Sailors assigned to the Momsen provided medical assistance to Iranian fishing vessel, approximately 400 n.m. north of Seychelles, off the coast of Somalia. DDG 92 is currently is assigned to Combined Task Force (CTF) 151, supporting counter-piracy operations in the Somali Basin and Gulf of Aden.

February 2, USS Momsen and USS Bunker Hill (CG 52) disrupted a pirate attack on Panamanian flagged merchant vessel Duqm, in the Gulf of Oman.

February 9, The guided-missile destroyer anchored in Patong Bay for a scheduled port visit to Phuket, Thailand.

March 24, USS Momsen returned to homeport after six-and-a-half month deployment.

April 27, Rear Adm. Mark D. Guadagnini, Commander, Carrier Strike Group (CSG) 9, relieved Cmdr. Jay D. Wylie due to a "loss of confidence in his ability to command stemming from allegations of misconduct." Capt. Mark A. Johnson, deputy commander of Destroyer Squadron 9, assumed temporary command of the Momsen.

May 20, Cmdr. Matthew P. Roberts relieved Capt. Mark A. Johnson as the 7th CO of Momsen.

September 25, USS Momsen is currently participating in a Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX), off the coast of southern California, as part of the Lincoln Carrier Strike Group.

November 18, Capt. Carol A. Hottenrott relieved Capt. Mark A. Johnson as Commodore, Destroyer Squadron (DESRON) 9, during a change-of-command ceremony aboard the Momsen at Naval Station Everett.

December 7, USS Momsen departed Everett for a scheduled deployment.

January 6, 2012 The Momsen pulled into Port Klang, Malaysia, for a six-day port call.

March 5, DDG 92 pulled into Salalah, Oman, for a routine port call to take some fuel and supplies.

March 26, USS Momsen arrived in Jebel Ali, U.A.E., for an extended port call.

June 4, The Momsen anchored in Patong Bay for a port visit to Phuket, Thailand.

June 28, The guided-missile destroyer departed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, after a brief port visit to embark friends and family members for a Tiger Cruise.

July ?, USS Momsen returned to Naval Station Everett after a seven-month deployment in the U.S. 5th and 7th Fleet Areas of Responsibility.

October 14, The Momsen is currently participating in a Task Group Exercise (TGEX) with the Canadian naval forces, off the coast of Vancouver Island, through Oct. 22.

March 15, 2013 Cmdr. Elaine A. Collins relieved Cmdr. Matthew P. Roberts as commanding officer of DDG 92.

April 22, USS Momsen departed homeport for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

May 21, The Momsen arrived in Tanjung Priok Port in Jakarta, Indonesia, to participate in the first phase of Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 2013 exercise. USS Tortuga (LSD 46) and USNS Safeguard (T-ARS 50) are also participating Underway for at-sea phase from May 24-26 Inport Tanjung Priok again from May 26-29.

June 7, DDG 92 moored at Harbor Master Pier (HMP) East in Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, for a week-long port call Inport Yokosuka again on June 18 or earlier Underway on June 26.

July 3, USS Momsen moored at Port of Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, for a four-day port visit to celebrate the Independence Day.

July 16, The guided-missile destroyer is currently participating in a biennial joint exercise Talisman Sabre 2013, off the coast of Queensland, Australia, as part of the USS George Washington (CVN 73) CSG.

July 29, USS Momsen moored at Garden Island Naval Base in Sydney, Australia, for a scheduled port visit.

August 22, USS Momsen returned to Everett, Wash., after a four-month underway period.

November 5, U.S. Coast Guard helicopter provided emergency medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of a sailor who reportedly severed part of a finger aboard the Momsen, while the ship was underway 75 miles west of Coos Bay, Ore.

November 13, The Momsen is currently underway for Group Sail operations with the USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) CSG in the SOCAL Op. Area.

January 7, 2014 Vigor Shipyards Inc., Seattle, Wash., was awarded a $33,1 million modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-11-C-4401) for the USS Momsen's Drydocking Selected Restricted Availability (DSRA). Work is expected to be completed by October.

August 21, Cmdr. Javier Gonzalez relieved Cmdr. Elaine A. Collins as CO of the USS Momsen during a change-of-command ceremony at Vigor Shipyard.

December 2, The Momsen undocked and returned to Naval Station Everett.

June 18, 2015 USS Momsen departed homeport for sea trials after an extended 16-month availability Underway for a Friends and Family Day Cruise on July 2.

October 7, DDG 92 moored at Bravo Pier, Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego, Calif., for a brief stop to onload ammo after underway off the coast of southern California.

October 20, USS Momsen moored at Berth 2, Pier 2 on Naval Base San Diego for a 27-day Training Availability (TRAV) Moored at Navy Fuel Farm, NB Point Loma for a brief stop on Nov. 17 Returned to Everett on Nov. 2? Completed TYCOM Material Inspection (TMI) on Jan. 15, 2016 Completed INSURV assessment on Feb. 11.

February 13, The Momsen recently departed homeport for Independent Deployer Certification Exercise (IDCERTEX) off the coast of southern California Moored at Wharf 311 on NWS Seal Beach, Calif., for ammo onload from March 16-19 Moored at Berth 2, Pier 3 on Naval Base San Diego from Feb. 19-22 Brief stop at Berth 2, Pier 10 on March 7.

April 15, USS Momsen departed Pier A, Naval Station Everett for a scheduled western Pacific deployment as part of the Surface Action Group (SAG).

April 25, The Momsen moored at Pier M3 on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii, for a two-day port call Moored outboard the USS Benfold (DDG 65) at Harbor Master Pier (HMP) West in Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, from May 6-10.

May 15, USS Momsen participated in a Passing Exercise (PASSEX) with the ROKS Busan (FF 959) and FS Vendemiaire (F734), while underway in the East China Sea.

May 16, Cmdr. Jason D. Kipp relieved Cmdr. Javier Gonzalez as the 10th CO of Momsen during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship while underway in the Sea of Japan.

May 17, USS Momsen moored at Berth 6 in Busan Naval Base, Republic of Korea, for a three-day port visit before participating in a joint bilateral exercise.

June 2, The Momsen moored at Berth 6, India Basin in Fleet Activities Sasebo, Japan, for a four-day port call Entered the South China Sea on June 8 Transited the Strait of Luzon eastbound on June 15? Transited westbound on June 2?.

July 2, USS Momsen moored at Berth 8, Changi Naval Base in Singapore for a three-day liberty visit Transited the Lombok Strait southbound on July 9.

July 17, USS Momsen moored at Fort Hill Wharf in Darwin, Australia, for a three-day port visit Transited the Makassar Strait northbound on July 23 Transited the Mindoro Strait on July 26.?

August 8, DDG 92 moored at Rivera Wharf South in Subic Bay, Republic of the Philippines, for a 13-day upkeep Departed South China Sea on Sept. 1?.

September 21, The Momsen recently arrived in the Guam Op. Area in support of a biennial field training exercise Valiant Shield 2016 Participated in a photo exercise (PHOTOEX), with the USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) CSG-5 and USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6) ESG-7, on Sept. 23.

September 24, USS Momsen moored at Port of Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, for a three-day liberty visit before conducting operations in support of the Oceania Maritime Security Initiative (OMSI) in the region Anchored off Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, for a brief stop to refuel on Oct. 21.

November 7, The guided-missile destroyer moored at Kilo Pier, Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego for a brief stop to disembark Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron (HSM) 49 Detachment and to embark friends and family members for a Tiger Cruise.

November 10, USS Momsen moored at Berth 6, Bravo Pier on Naval Station Everett following a seven-month deployment.

February 9, 2017 Pacific Ship Repair & Fabrication Inc., San Diego, Calif., was awarded a $17,5 million modification to a previously awarded contract (N00024-12-C-4400) for the USS Momsen's Selected Restricted Availability (SRA). Work will be performed in Everett and is expected to be completed by September.

February 17, The Momsen returned to Naval Station Everett after underway for ammo offload at the Naval Magazine Indian Island in Port Hadlock, Wash.

September 29, Cmdr. Elaine A. Brunelle relieved Cmdr. Jason D. Kipp as CO of the Momsen during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship at Bravo Pier.

December 8, USS Momsen moored at Berth 5, Alpha Pier on Naval Station Everett after a four-day underway for sea trials.

January 12, 2018 The Momsen returned to homeport after a one-day underway in the Strait of Juan de Fuca Moored at Ammunition Pier, Naval Magazine Indian Island for ammo onload from Jan. 16-19 Underway for routine training from Jan. 29- Feb. 2, Feb. 5-9, Feb. 20-26 and March 6-7 Underway again on March 30.

April 1, The Momsen conducted an emergency medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of a Sailor who was suffering from symptoms of appendicitis, on Sunday late afternoon, while underway off the coast of California. She was transported by U.S. Coast Guard helicopter to Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital.

April 2, USS Momsen moored at Berth 6, Pier 3 on Naval Base San Diego for an 11-day training availability (TRAV) Moored at Navy Fuel Farm (NFF) on Naval Base Point Loma for a brief stop on April 20 Moored at Berth M/N, Naval Air Station North Island for a brief stop on April 24.

From April 30- May 1, the Momsen conducted operations in the Strait of Juan de Fuca Returned home on May 2 Moored outboard the USS Sampson (DDG 102) at Berth 5, Alpha Pier on May 11 Underway again on June 13.

June 17, DDG 92 moored at Berth O/P, Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego for a one-day port call Participated in a towing exercise (TOWEX) with the USS William P. Lawrence (DDG 110), off the southern coast of Oahu, Hawaii, on June 25.

June 27, USS Momsen moored at Pier K7 on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii, for the in-port phase of a biennial multinational exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2018 Underway for at-sea phase on July 10.

July 28, The Momsen moored at Berth 5, Alpha Pier on Naval Station Everett Underway en route to Seattle, Wash., on July 31.

July 31, USS Momsen moored at Pier 90E in Port of Seattle for a six-day visit to participate in annual Seafair Fleet Week festivities.

August 6, The guided-missile destroyer moored at Berth 2, Bravo Pier on Naval Station Everett Underway again on Aug. 9 Transited the Strait of Juan de Fuca westbound on Aug. 10.

August 15, USS Momsen moored at Terminal 2 in Port of Anchorage, Alaska, for a three-day visit in conjunction with the Arctic Maritime Symposium.

August 23, The Momsen moored at Navy Fuel Farm (NFF) on Naval Base Point Loma for a brief stop to refuel Moored at Berth 2, Pier 7 in Naval Base San Diego for a brief stop on Aug. 24.

August 28, The Momsen moored at Berth 5, Alpha Pier on Naval Station Everett Underway again from Oct. 18-19 and Oct. 25.

October 29, USS Momsen moored at Berth O/P, Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego for a brief stop Moored at Berth 6, Pier 2 in Naval Base San Diego from Nov. 2-5.

November 9, DDG 92 moored at Wharf 3 in Port Hueneme, Calif., for a week-long port call to conduct combat systems groom with the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Moored at Berth 6, Alpha Pier in Naval Station Everett on Nov. 19 Underway again on Nov. 30.

December 3, The Momsen moored at Berth 5, Pier 8 on Naval Base San Diego for a four-day port call before conducting training in the SOCAL Op. Area.

December 4, Cmdr. Robert M. Laird, Jr., relieved Cmdr. Elaine A. Brunelle as CO of the Momsen during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship.

December 15, USS Momsen moored at Navy Fuel Farm (NFF) on Naval Base Point Loma for a brief stop to refuel.

December 18, The Momsen participated in a MISSILEX as part of the USS Boxer (LHD 4) ARG's Surface Warfare Advanced Tactical Training (SWATT) exercise Moored at Berth O/P, Naval Air Station North Island for a brief stop on Dec. 19 Moored at Berth 2, Alpha Pier in Naval Station Everett on Dec. 22.

January 28, 2019 USS Momsen moored at Ammunition Pier, Naval Magazine Indian Island for a four-day ammo onload Arrived in the SOCAL Op. Area on Feb. 4.

February 8, The Momsen moored at Berth 6, Pier 3 on Naval Base San Diego Underway in support of the USS Boxer (LHD 4) ARG's Marine Expeditionary Unit Exercise (MEUEX) on Feb. 11 Moored at Berth M/N, NAS North Island for a brief stop on Feb. 27 Arrived in the Strait of Juan de Fuca on March 2.

March 4, The Momsen made a brief stop at Ammunition Pier, Naval Magazine Indian Island before moored at Berth 2, Alpha Pier on Naval Station Everett.

March 29, USS Momsen departed Everett for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

April 1, The guided-missile destroyer moored at Berth O/P, NAS North Island in San Diego for a brief stop Moored at NFF, Naval Base Point Loma for a brief stop to refuel on April 4.

April 12, USS Momsen moored at Pier H2 on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii, for a one-day port call Moored at Berth 2, Tango Wharf in Apra Harbor, Guam, from April 22- May 7 and May 8-10 Conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS Walter S. Diehl (T-AO 193), while underway off the southwest coast of Japan, on May 14.

May 22, The Momsen made a brief stop in Sagami Bay, Kanagawa Prefecture Moored at Akasaki Pier in Fleet Activities Sasebo, Japan, from June 2-5 Conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS John Ericsson (T-AO 194), while underway in the Philippine Sea, on June 15 Conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS Guadalupe (T-AO 200) on June 17.

June 26, USS Momsen conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS Walter S. Diehl, while underway in the South China Sea Moored at Fleet Activities Sasebo from July 19-23 Moored at Berth 2, Juliet Basin Wharf in Sasebo from Aug. 10-14 Conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS Pecos (T-AO 197), while underway in the Yellow Sea, on Sept. 10 Arrived in Sagami Wan on Sept. 18.

September 19, USS Momsen moored outboard the USS McCampbell (DDG 85) at Berth 7 in Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, for a four-day port visit.

September 27, The Momsen pulled into Apra Harbor, Guam, for a three-day port call before participating in a bilateral exercise Pacific Griffin 19 Participated in a PHOTOEX on Sept. 30 Moored at Pier M3 in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, from Oct. 13-15.

October 21, DDG 92 moored at Berth 5, Pier 12 on Naval Base San Diego Day-long underway in the SOCAL Op. Area on Oct. 23 Departed San Diego on Oct. 25.

October 28, USS Momsen moored at Berth 1, Alpha Pier on Naval Station Everett following a seven-month deployment.

November 26, The Momsen moored at Berth 1, Alpha Pier after a one-day underway off the coast of Washington Underway for ammo offload at the Naval Magazine Indian Island on Dec. 2 Moored at Berth 6, Bravo Pier on Dec. 6 Underway off the coast of Washington from Dec. 9-10.

July 27, 2020 USS Momsen departed Berth 5, Alpha Pier for sea trials following a seven-month Selected Restricted Availability (SRA) Moored at Berth 6, Bravo Pier on July 31 Underway again from Oct. 20-22.

October 26, The Momsen moored at Naval Magazine Indian Island for a four-day ammo onload Returned home on Friday afternoon Underway again on Nov. 16.

From November 16-19 and Nov. 22-23, the Momsen conducted training in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, approximately 3-8 n.m. northeast of Dungeness Spit Anchored off Naval Magazine Indian Island for a brief stop on Nov. 23 Moored at Berth 6, Bravo Pier on Nov. 24 Underway again on Jan. 22.

January 25, 2021 USS Momsen moored at Berth 2, Pier 2 on Naval Base San Diego Day-long underway on Jan. 30 Underway in support of the USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) CSG's Surface Warfare Advanced Tactical Training (SWATT) exercise on Feb. 8.

February 20, The Momsen moored at Navy Fuel Farm (NFF) on Naval Base Point Loma for a brief stop to refuel Arrived in the Strait of Juan de Fuca on Feb. 23 Moored at Berth 1, Alpha Pier in Naval Station Everett on Feb. 24 Underway again on March 12.

March 15, USS Momsen moored at Berth 1, Pier 12 on Naval Base San Diego Day-long underway for a Board of Inspection and Survey (INSURV) assessment on March 17 Departed San Diego on March 22 Returned home on April 2 Underway again on April 15.

April 20, The Momsen moored at Berth 1, Pier 7 on Naval Base San Diego Brief underway on April 22 Departed San Diego on April 26 Moored at Wharf 4 in Port Hueneme, for combat systems groom with the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), from April 27- May 5 Moored at NFF for a brief stop to refuel on May 6.

May 9, USS Momsen moored at Berth 6, Alpha Pier on Naval Station Everett Moored at Ammunition Pier, Naval Magazine Indian Island for ammo onload from June 7-10 Moored at Berth O/P on Naval Air Station North Island from June 13-16.


Ships of World War Two

By Stephen Sherman, June, 2007. Updated Oct. 16, 2013.

U sing the pictures from a 1943 U.S. Naval Recognition Manual as a base, this section covers the major naval powers of the war: United States, United Kingdom, and Germany. As the manual was designed specifically for recognition, it includes plan views of classes of warships, not individual ships (surface ships only, no submarines). Thus, all the ships presented here are lead ships of their class.

In the precise prose of the era, "The basic principle of Surface Vessel recognition as with aircraft is familiarity with the total form of the object observed. The true character of a ship is not determined by a single feature or features, but by the familiarity we may have with the total mass of the hull and the superstructure, when viewed from great distances. . The salient recognition characteristics are shown in their simplest form by silhouettes. . In ship recognition, the use of beam, or side view silhouette, is by far the most important. If the beam silhouette is thoroughly known, the ship can be recognized from either the surface or the air."

"Preceding each group of vessels of each nation represented in this manual is a chart of these simplified silhouettes representing a vessel of each class. These are arranged at the same scale for ease of comparison with each other and with other ships in the same class in other navies. Large instructional charts of these simplified silhouettes are being prepared and will be distributed in the near future."

Each ship (or class of ship) has two pages in the manual. The first page typically shows a profile view and a top view, and below a diagram of the density of fire from its main battery, armament, protection, and speed, illustrated in the thumbnail of the Japanese cruiser Nachi at left. The second page typically shows two or three photographs of the ship.

Below is a random page from the 1943 Naval Recognition Manual, which includes plan views, profiles, and photographs of the ships.


Watch the video: World War II in HD: Kwajalein. History (January 2022).