(SP-506: t. 16; 1. 50'; b. 10'1"; dr. 3'6"; s. 22 k.; cpl. 6; a.
1 1-pdr., 1 mg.)
The first Raccoon was launched during 1915 by George Lawley & Son, Neponset, Mass., as a wooden private boat acquired by the Navy 5 May 1917 from her owner, Franeis W. Fabyan of Cambridge, Mass., and commissioned the same day, BMC M. B. SaDortas in command.
Raccoon operated on patrol duty at New London, Conn., until December 1917 when she was transferred to Newport R.I. She landed her armament 3 December 1918 and was returned to her owner 17 January 1919. Following two subsequent changes in ownership, she was renamed Constance in 1924, but disappeared from mercantile registers the following year.
یواساس رکون (اسپی-۵۰۶)
یواساس رکون (اسپی-۵۰۶) (به انگلیسی: USS Raccoon (SP-506) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۵۰ فوت (۱۵ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۱۵ ساخته شد.
|آغاز کار:||۵ دسامبر ۱۹۱۵|
|تکمیل ساخت:||۵ دسامبر ۱۹۱۵|
|به دست آورده شده:||۵ مه ۱۹۱۷|
|اعزام:||۵ مه ۱۹۱۷|
|گنجایش:||16 gross register tons|
|درازا:||۵۰ فوت (۱۵ متر)|
|پهنا:||۱۰ فوت ۱ اینچ (۳٫۰۷ متر)|
|آبخور:||۳ فوت ۶ اینچ (۱٫۰۷ متر)|
این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. میتوانید با گسترش آن به ویکیپدیا کمک کنید.
The common raccoon (Procyon lotor) is a mid-size mammal distinguished by its black face mask and ringed tail. It is a member of the Procyonidae, a primarily tropical family of omnivores native to the Americas — and the only one of this family found in Canada. Raccoons are found in every province except Newfoundland and Labrador. A nocturnal species, it is highly adaptable and can survive in urban areas as well as wilderness habitats. Humans often consider raccoons pests due to their skill and persistence in raiding garbage bins, gardens and crops for food.Raccoon posing in the middle of the day. Location Stanley Park, Vancouver. Photo taken 9 July 2011. (© Nabilomar/Dreamstime)
The English word raccoon comes from the Algonquian language of the Powhatan confederacy of Indigenous tribes that lived in the Virginia area at the time of British colonization. The Algonquian words aroughcun and aroughcoune mean “one that rubs, scrubs, and scratches with its hands.” (See also Indigenous Languages in Canada.)
When raccoons were introduced overseas in Europe and Asia, several cultures adopted terms for the animal that mean “wash-bear.” This was based on the raccoon’s bear-like appearance and habit of seemingly washing its food before eating. Hence Waschbär in German, orsetto lavatore in Italian and araiguma in Japanese. The French adopted the name raton laveur (“washing rat”), and the same term is used in Canadian French. During the 18th century, people in New France used the term chat sauvage (“wild cat”) as another name for the raccoon. This name is still recognized in Quebec among older generations, but it is no longer used.
The humorous nickname trash panda has recently become popular on social media.
Physical DescriptionRaccoon in a Montreal park. Photo taken 6 March 2012. (© Songquan Deng/Dreamstime)
Raccoons are the largest of their family, Procyonidae, which consists of medium-sized mammals native to the Americas. This family includes coatis, kinkajous, olingos, olinguitos, ringtails and cacomistles, but the raccoon is the only member found in Canada.
Raccoons are stocky and measure about 60–95 cm long. On average, they weigh 5–12 kg, and males are heavier than females. Raccoons may gain up to twice their normal weight just before winter. Because raccoons do not hibernate, the accumulated fat stores help them survive the winter.
The colour of their fur varies from grey to brown, black and red.
Raccoons are easily distinguished. They have long, bushy tails with black and tan rings. The dark fur around their eyes resembles a thief’s mask. This specific trait has contributed to the perception of raccoons as mischievous. A third unique raccoon trait is their paws. Their front paws look like human hands, and are just as dextrous and agile. Unlike humans, however, they do not have opposable thumbs. Their back paws are plantigrade, which means that raccoons walk on flat feet like humans do.
BehaviourRaccoon in a Montreal park. Photo taken 6 March 2012. (© Songquan Deng/Dreamstime)
Raccoons organize themselves in fission-fusion societies, which is a term describing a group that merges and splits frequently throughout its environment. They can be seen in groups if good feeding and resting spots are found. In addition, raccoons may have common latrines or “toilets,” shared areas for urination and defecation.
Raccoons are nocturnal, hunting and foraging for food during the night. They often manipulate their food in water but do not strictly wash the items. Their sense of touch increases underwater, and they will rub food to remove unwanted parts, examine it, and then eat it. This behaviour is how they got their name in various languages.
Raccoons are one of the few wildlife species that have thrived despite human expansion. Those accustomed to urban settings are skilled at raiding waste bins in search of human leftovers. As opportunistic feeders, they are naturally curious. They will try to open any container or bin that contains food, and they often succeed in this task. This has become such a problem in Toronto, Ontario that the city introduced “raccoon-resistant” green bins in 2016. However, video captured by Toronto Star journalist Amy Dempsey in 2018 shows raccoons opening these containers with apparent ease.
Distribution and Habitat
Raccoons range from the southern half of Canada all the way to Northern Panama. Canadian ranges include the south coastal area of British Columbia and parts of the Okanagan Valley almost all of Alberta excluding the Rocky Mountains the southern halves of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec and the Atlantic provinces excluding Newfoundland and Labrador.
Since its introduction in Europe, the common raccoon can now be found throughout continental Europe, most notably in Germany and France. It was introduced in Japan starting in the late 1970s. Inspired by a popular television show, families imported young raccoons as pets and then often released them into the wild after they got older and unwieldy. Raccoons are now seen as an invasive menace in Japan.
Raccoons can live in any habitat as long as there is a source of water and food, and suitable shelter to build a den for resting and overwintering. Dens can be burrows, tree hollows, hollow logs, rock caves or abandoned burrows made by other animals. In cities and suburbs, suitable denning sites can be sewers, garages, trees, culverts and underneath porches. The most natural raccoon habitats are wetland areas (e.g., hardwood swamps and marshes), farmlands and forests. Raccoons are not particularly territorial. It is common for their home ranges to overlap.
Raccoons are opportunistic omnivores, meaning they will eat most plant and animal food sources available in their environment. This can include seasonal fruits, corn, nuts, bird eggs, insects, crayfish, clams, frogs, toads, worms, larvae, snails and human leftovers. Raccoons of different habitats have their own preferred food items.
Reproduction and Development
Male raccoons generally reach sexual maturity at about one year, and females usually a bit earlier. Breeding season is from February to June, varying from northern to southern populations. In Canada, breeding tends to take place in February and March, with babies born around May. Gestation, or the period of time a mother is pregnant, is roughly 63–65 days. In their southern range, a female will usually have up to four babies, called kits. In their northern range, including Canada, there can be as many as seven kits in a litter. Males do not play a role in raising young. Kits are born completely dependent on their mother, but they grow quickly. After two months, kits can be seen out of the nursing den, hunting and foraging with the mother. When ready, young males will disperse far from their mother’s home range, whereas young females tend to stay closer.
A raccoon’s lifespan is 3–5 years in the wild. Commons threats are hunting, trapping, car collisions, malnutrition and poisoning. Raccoons can be nuisances to farmers, who may kill raccoons on their property. In captivity (e.g., at a zoo), raccoons have lived as long as 21 years.
Relationship with Humans
A raccoon kit searches for food in a bird feeder. (Courtesy yeimaya/flickr CC)
Raccoons are often seen as pests because they will go anywhere they can find food. Raccoons can break into hen coops and eat eggs and chicks. They can damage vegetable crops by foraging through them. In cities and suburbs, raccoons can get into attics and garages and may damage household objects in their quest to find food.
Wildlife specialists discourage keeping raccoons as pets. In some places, this is even prohibited. Raccoons are not domesticated animals. Although baby raccoons may enjoy human company, they usually become aggressive towards humans as adults. They also require a lot of activity and can be destructive to home furnishings. There are wildlife rehabilitation centres that can take in orphaned or injured raccoons for eventual release into the wild.
Raccoons can carry rabies, a lethal virus, and transmit it by bites. Because there is no cure for rabies, people are urged to avoid raccoons whose appearance and/or behaviour seems abnormal. In addition, raccoons are greatly affected by another virus, canine distemper. They are also susceptible to feline distemper. These viruses don’t affect humans, but can be transmitted to pets, especially dogs, cats and ferrets (see Animal Disease).
Invasion of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe: History of colonization, features behind its success, and threats to native fauna
We aimed to review the history of the introduction and colonization of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe, the features behind its successful expansion and its impact on native fauna. The raccoon dog quickly colonized new areas after being introduced to the European part of the former Soviet Union. Today it is widespread in Northern and Eastern Europe and is still spreading in Central Europe. Features behind its success include its adaptability, high reproductive potential, omnivory, hibernation in northern areas, multiple introductions with > 9000 individuals from different localities, and tendency to wander enabling gene flow between populations. Firm evidence of the raccoon dog's negative impact on native fauna, such as a reduction in bird populations, is still scarce. Raccoon dogs may destroy waterfowl nests, although a nest predation study in Latvia did not confirm this. Predator removal studies in Finland suggested that the raccoon dog's impact on game birds is smaller than expected. However, raccoon dogs may have caused local extinction of frog populations, especially on islands. Raccoon dogs may compete with other carnivores for food, for example for carrion in winter, or for the best habitat patches. In northern Europe potential competitors include the red fox Vulpes vulpes and the badger Meles meles, but studies of their diets or habitat preferences do not indicate severe competition. The raccoon dog is an important vector of diseases and parasites, such as rabies, Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp. and this is no doubt the most severe consequence arising from the spread of this alien species in Europe.
Keywords: Competition Introduction Nyctereutes procyonoides Predation Vector of diseases and parasites.
Raccoon Information and Facts
Raccoon Appearance: Though weight may vary from eight to twenty pounds, raccoon species share the same distinctive black markings around the eyes, surrounded by lighter facial fur and often white bands. The dark fur around they eyes is considered an adaptation to increase the ability to see in the absence of daylight. A mixture of light and dark, longer hair comprises the body and consists of two layers, the inner lay of insulating fur and the outer layer of coarse hair that serves to repel water. Raccoons have a bushy tail with a contrasting ring pattern the tail serving as a point of balance while climbing as well as an added layer of warmth while sleeping in cold weather. Primary senses for the raccoon include the sense of touch and smell, with the ability to see in the dark a close third. The paws of these animals are composed of sensitive tissue that makes it possible for the raccoon to identify an object by touch alone. They do not possess the thumbs of primates, so the ambidexterity of the species is limited.
Raccoon Habitat and Behavior: It was once assumed that raccoons were completely solitary creatures. That theory has been widely disproven, though raccoons are most often seen alone and not in groups. Females of the species will often commune together at appointed feeding locations or in a group area for sleeping. Male raccoons seem to only be social during the mating season, and this interaction with others is based mostly on breeding status and not companionship. Both male and female raccoons will share a living space if something exceptional—like an abandoned building—is located. Originally from woodland areas, the raccoon has adapted to life in or near cities as well, though ideally the creatures remain in a location where a vertical surface is conducive to climbing. Climbing trees is the staple for raccoon safety, and for that reason, you will not often find them in open spaces or too close to a sandy coast. Mating season for this animal occurs for approximately three months in the spring and early summer, with females mating with multiple males. The average litter size is three to five kits. Male raccoons tend to be hostile toward unknown young, and for this reason most females will become completely solitary while raising their offspring. At about sixteen weeks, the kits are old enough to be on their own, but the mother will often allow her brood to remain in the den until after the first year.
Raccoon Diet and Hunting: Raccoons have an impressive array of acceptable food sources, and it is not uncommon for the individual raccoon to have a personal inclination toward a specific item of the diet. Raccoons will eat insects, amphibians, berries, fruit, nuts, and even smaller mammals. They will scavenge for human garbage and will eat anything from potato chips to chicken wings with sauce. During the months when food is readily available, raccoons prefer acorns and berries over many meat sources, though they seem to enjoy fishing and catching amphibians. Buildup of fat is important to the raccoon. During the cold months, they will become less active, though the decrease in activity is not a true form of hibernation.
Raccoon Nuisance Concerns: Because of their high intelligence and problem solving skills, the ingenuity of the raccoon is often seen as a nuisance problem for humans. Raccoons are opportunistic feeders, and they can remember locations of food—and how to unlatch or open containers—for up to three years. This impressive memory recall makes raccoons repeat offenders when it comes to home invasion and garbage scavenging. The cleanup involved with a scavenging raccoon is less of a hassle than the cleanup involved with a raccoon that has ruined building materials in an attic or garage from creating a den site. These animals are disinclined to attack house pets, but will if the pet initiates the confrontation. Species squabbles raise the concern of rabies, a common virus found in wild raccoons. The most common issue we deal with is the scratching sounds in the attic or walls from raccoons.
Raccoon Diseases: Raccoons are the prime vector for rabies virus. For unknown reasons, though it is suspected that the large brain cavity of the raccoon is of primary influence, rabies virus thrives in this specific species. Because of this, raccoons are always suspect for the disease even if no symptoms are discernible. Raccoons are also known to carry leptospirosis, a bacterial infection that affects the kidneys of humans and other mammals. Lesser concerns center on the intestinal parasites spread by raccoons, some of which can be ingested by humans and can cause serious debilitations in young or elderly people. Raccoons are most frequently killed in nature by distemper virus, though this is not a disease that can be passed the humans.
Read more educational articles about raccoons. Learn how to keep a raccoon out of your swimming pool , and what to do if you find an Orphaned Baby Raccoon. Learn what kind of noises and sounds raccoons make, and all about their mating habits. Find out if homeowners insurance pay for raccoon damage and learn about Raccoon Eviction Fluid . Learn, too, about how to identify raccoon feces.
Learn if raccoons will attack cats, dogs and other pets?, and what to do if you are bitten by a raccoon. I can let you know if you should feed a baby raccoon, the symptoms of a sick raccoon, and what equipment is needed to trap raccoons. Find out if repellents will get a raccoon out of your chimney and just what kind of damage one can do in your attic. Learn if raccoons can climb fences, if they can swim or hibernate, how well they are able to jump, and just how smart they are. I can let you know how dangerous raccoons can be towards pets and why raccoons Die Inside Houses.
Learn if they burrow and dig holes and what kinds of diseases raccoons carry. I can let you know if raccoons can open doors or windows, and if they eat rats or mice. Learn about raccoon roundworm and what to do about a Raccoon under the porch. Read more about if it is legal for you to trap a raccoon, if raccoons live or sleep in trees, and how to identify raccoon tracks. Find out why raccoons tear up sod, if the city or county animal services, where to relocate a trapped raccoon. I can also let you know what wildlife rehabilitators do with raccoons and share my best advice on how to keep raccoons out from under your porch.
This site is intended to provide raccoon education and information, so that you can make an informed decision if you need to deal with a raccoon problem. This site provides many raccoon control articles and strategies, if you wish to attempt to solve the problem yourself. If you are unable to do so, which is likely with many cases of raccoon removal, please go to the home page and click the USA map, where I have wildlife removal experts listed in over 500 cites and towns, who can properly help you with your nuisance raccoon.
Archaeologists believe that the Raccoon was hunted and trapped by most prehistoric Indian cultures. The image of the Raccoon has been found on Hopewell effigy pipes.
Raccoon fur was an important commodity in the trade between American Indians and European traders.
Early settlers found many Raccoons in Ohio. They hunted Raccoons for food and for pelts. Pelts were used particularly in the making of hats. This "'coonskin cap" was made popular through the stories and legends of Daniel Boone.
The sale of Raccoon pelts by Athens County residents in 1804 helped to purchase books for the start of the Western Library Association. This later became known as The Coonskin Library.
Currently in Ohio, Raccoons are hunted for sport and trapped for their pelts, which are used in the fur industry for collars, cuffs and hats. However, there has been a steady decrease in the number of hunters and trappers in the state. As a result, Raccoon populations have soared 800% in the last 15 years. They have had to expand their range and habitat, becoming very urbanized. It is becoming more and more common to see a Raccoon in a backyard, sifting through garbage cans or raiding a garden plot. Raccoons are found in all 88 Ohio counties.
Because of this tremendous increase, there is a growing risk of Raccoon rabies and distemper in the state. Raccoon rabies has been spreading rapidly throughout the Midwest and eastern United States since 1995. As with most wildlife, Raccoons are not aggressive towards humans and will try to avoid them. Humans should make no attempt to make contact with a Raccoon, including touching or feeding.
Distribution & Status
Raccoons were relatively uncommon in Minnesota until the mid to late 19 th century, when populations began expanding from the southeastern portion of the state (Timm, 1975 Hazard, 1982). The raccoon has successfully expanded its range in a northerly direction as well as increased in abundance within the Great Lakes region (De Vos, 1964 Jannett et al., 2007).
The current distribution range of the raccoon extends throughout the United States (excluding northern portions of the Rocky Mountains and Great Basin regions) and from British Columbia to Nova Scotia (Chapman and Feldhamer, 1982 Kurta, 1995). Northern range limits have been observed in central regions of Canadian provinces that includes Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan (Chapman and Feldhamer, 1982 Kurta, 1995). Raccoons are found in a variety of habitats, including forests, prairies, swamps, stream corridors, suburbia, and urban areas. In northern climates, raccoons may enter a period of dormancy in a den during winter, though hibernation does not take place. Other times of the year the raccoon can commonly be found in habitats associated with water.
Populations are secure throughout the Great Lakes region.
Worldwide, Procyon lotor ranges widely throughout North and Central America. The Procyonidae family is restricted to the New World, with species ranging throughout North, Central, and South America.
Raccoons have an IUCN rank of Least Concern, IUCN information here
Beyond the raccoon roundworm: The natural history of non-raccoon Baylisascaris species in the New World
A total of 10 species of Baylisascaris, a genus of ascaridoid nematodes, occur worldwide and 6 of them occur in the New World. Most of the Baylisascaris species have a similar life cycle with carnivorous mammals or marsupials serving as definitive hosts and a smaller prey host serving as paratenic (or intermediate) hosts. However, one species in rodents is unique in that it only has one host. Considerable research has been conducted on B. procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, as it is a well-known cause of severe to fatal neurologic disease in humans and many wildlife species. However, other Baylisascaris species could cause larva migrans but research on them is limited in comparison. In addition to concerns related to the potential impacts of larva migrans on potential paratenic hosts, there are many questions about the geographic ranges, definitive and paratenic host diversity, and general ecology of these non-raccoon Baylisascaris species. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge of New World Baylisascaris species, including B. columnaris of skunks, B. transfuga and B. venezuelensis of bears, B. laevis of sciurids, B. devosi of gulonids, B. melis of badgers, and B. potosis of kinkajou. Discussed are what is known regarding the morphology, host range, geographic distribution, ecoepidemiology, infection dynamics in definitive and paratenic hosts, treatment, and control of these under-studied species. Also, we discuss the currently used molecular tools used to investigate this group of parasites. Because of morphologic similarities among larval stages of sympatric Baylisascaris species, these molecular tools should provide critical insight into these poorly-understood areas, especially paratenic and definitive host diversity and the possible risk these parasites pose to the health to the former group. This, paired with traditional experimental infections, morphological analysis, and field surveys will lead to a greater understanding of this interesting and important nematode genus.
Keywords: Ascarids Baylisascaris Larva migrans Wildlife parasites Zoonoses.
A raccoon's face has several markings that help it stand out. The most noticeable marking is the black "mask"—large black markings around each eye. They extend from the edge of the nose to the lower part of the cheek. In addition, raccoons have whitish patches on top of the eyes and around the nose. Raccoons have grayish-brown fur over most of their body, and their tails have four to six black rings.
Raccoons live throughout the continental United States in woods, wetlands, suburbs, parks, cities, and anywhere there is cover, food, and water. Predators of raccoons include the coyote, fisher, bobcat, red fox, and great horned owl.
Raccoons are omnivores, meaning they will eat both meat and vegetables. They like grasshoppers, nuts, berries, mice, squirrels, and bird eggs. They are nocturnal and search for food at night. Raccoons are opportunistic feeders and are well known by people for their skillful attempts at stealing food from garbage cans in parks and neighborhoods. Raccoons are able to get food that other animals cannot because they have nimble, almost handlike paws that can grasp at tree branches, nuts, fruits, and even the lids of garbage cans.
Raccoons are solitary, except during the breeding season, which occurs from January to June. Females usually have one litter a year, with three to seven offspring per litter. The gestation period is roughly two months. Young stay with their mother for their first winter, then venture off on their own in spring. A raccoon can live for 16 years in the wild, but often only live for an average of five years.
At the National Wildlife Federation, we love raccoons, especially our mascot Ranger Rick! But it can be dangerous to get close to raccoons, because unlike Ranger Rick, wild raccoons may become aggressive if provoked.
Raccoon I SP-506 - History
Ultimately, Redd, Gay, and Johnson ran the camp under the direction of Scout Executive Bachman.
Gay and Johnson were in charge of first aid, signaling, map reading, map making, cooking, Scout’s pace, tracking, fire making, and similar subjects. Redd taught the boys how to swim, how to use knives and axes properly, how to find compass directions using a watch, and he was also in charge of all athletics. Robert S. Walker, President and Managing Editor of the Southern Fruit Grower and local naturalist, was considered the most interesting addition to camp. Walker came one night each week and taught the boys about bugs, trees, and flowers. The boys particularly found his talks on bees, tumble bugs, and ants the most interesting. Scouts also enjoyed the hikes he led each week before breakfast to teach tree study.
Despite heavy and almost constant rains early in the camp season, the mirth of Camp Raccoon never waned. The boys swam in the lake every morning or afternoon. The invigorating morning swims earned the lake the name "Alarm Clock." The Scout gardens provided fresh vegetables, and Howard Williams, the cook, kept the boys well fed with blackberry cobbler made from fresh picked blackberries and fresh river fish caught in the nearby river. Nightly campfires warmed the hearts of the boys, who sat on logs with their patrols around the fire. There, at 7:30 each evening near the demonstration field, the patrols would try to outdo the others by performing skits and singing songs. The boys and adults bonded around the fires, and each program closed with the scout benediction sung to the tune of "Taps."
The 1920 camp season at Camp Raccoon could only be described as "splendid." A report by Robert Walker noted the following beautiful description of the highlight of Chattanooga Scouting:
Thousands of years ago when the old earth was adjusting her surface she found in hunching her side too much matter at a certain spot, and to make her internal self more comfortable and more uniform a part of her body bulged up like the wrinkle of a soft garment. Nature then set to work and pulverized her stony self by the use of water and heat and cold. This huge hump in nature was then ready for forestation, and vegetable growth has been progressing ever since. For centuries a portion of this wonderful wrinkle has been gazing across Moccasin Bend in the direction of Chattanooga and Missionary ridge. Although only a few miles in a direct air route westward from Chattanooga, to reach the eastern base of Raccoon mountain one must travel eight miles by auto, or many miles more if he chooses to go by water. People who have eyes to see and use them observe that this huge elevation known as Raccoon mountain contains a depression known as Pan Gap. Across this gap wild beast first laid out a trail, and with the coming of the Indians they seized the animal trail, and the white man later wrested it from the red man. This old mountain trail once led to a gigantic pan carved out in the bend of the Tennessee river, but since the construction of the lock and dam below the waters have successfully obliterated it.
As our auto deposits us at the eastern base of Raccoon mountain we find this small trail awaiting us, and we accept its offer of hospitality and guidance. As our moving feet turn the stones that the feet of lesser animals have turned for ages, old sentinels of the forest stand to either side to greet us and shade us from the hot rays of the summer afternoon’s sun. Oaks, sourwoods, persimmons, maples, sourgums, sweet gums, hickories and various other denizens of this rocky mountainside long ago met together here and formed an ideal brotherhood, and it is their company that we are now permitted to enjoy, which smaller children cover the space beneath and nod their fragrant faces as we caress them with our garments. Up and up across the rocky ravines our faithful mountain path leads ups, and as we pause to rest our bodies the white blossoms of a host of American ipecac tempt us, and we are not satisfied until we have plucked a handful. We have scarcely gathered our choice until a yellow daisy-looking flower, with tall, square steam [sic], bearing six greenish leaves, arranged in whorls reminding us of the churn dashers of by-gone days, give us such a welcome that we cannot fail to add some to our collection. So we add a few of the coreopsis major and proceed on our journey. On either side of our path the trailing arbutus, pussy toes and wild honeysuckles have added their floral efforts to the history of the wayside—for it is the month of June.
The cool atmosphere, the land of real fairies and the stones lying within our path too gentle to move out of our way make us oblivious to the steepness of any part of our trail. Ants and beetles hurry across our trail, reminding us of the Saturday evenings of olden days when everybody on the farm was preparing for a day of rest. Here and there timid lizards go scurrying out of sight, and some who have not been trained in the manners of their anthropod brothers peep cunningly around a tree to see if we really deserve the name of being called and civilized people. The gentle brown toads hop across our path, for in Raccoon mountain they are lords of the day as well as the night. On our right and left the ants are busily engaged in pasturing their ant cows—the aphides—on the green foliage of weed and shrub. We pause long enough to watch them strike the aphides honey ducts, which brings a flow of honey dew within reach of their mouths. Under the green wings which nature has prepared for us, and it is tastily decorated with her best patterns of lichens. As we sit for a moment nature takes advantage of the opportunity and directs our attention to some of her other children living in Raccoon mountain, of which she is justly proud.
Scarcely have we rested until a yellow-breasted chat—that amusing clown of the bird kingdom—so successfully imitates a jay that in our imagination we can see the bluish creature not far away. But in the denoeument [sic] of its song the next note is a shrill whistle and the successive blasts echo across the mountain. In its season this bird is the master choir leader of Raccoon mountain. The indigo bunting holds the yellow-breasted chat in high esteem for its mimickry [sic] of song, and the curious and comic antics cut in mid-air by the chat seems to inspire the bunting and challenge it to music. From the highest branch of the tree-top the indigo bunting follows the chat and unwinds a repetition of the song, reminding the nature-lover of a plant whose flowers grow in terminal spikes.
. . . .
On down the slope we move and behold a brook that is chattering and fussing with the stones about something, and as we advance, behold, we see signs of Camp Raccoon—for directly before us some kind and thoughtful persons have gone before and left behind a rustic pioneer bridge made without a nail. As we tread over the chattering stream we think our thanks and bless the name of the Boy Scouts, who have consoled us by a message written in stone, "This is the trail." And these stones that lie at our feet, and larger ones that bask in the shade and sunshine above us, have declarations written in round white pebbles that this place we call Raccoon mountain was once the bottom of the sea.
It takes nature ten thousand years to build one inch of soil, and she has for ages been placing mite by mite and little by little in preparing Raccoon mountain a fit place for both man and beast.
. . . .
Before us straight ahead we see the wonderful royal can[y]on of the Tennessee, while to our left stands a cliff that keeps guard over the Tennessee, and to the east a green peak covered with pines and oaks and blooming flowers. High up on the east side of our right above the infant ravine, are two bubbling springs too secure for a typhoid, or any other dangerous germ, to gain entrance. When one tries to adequately describe these springs and their surrounding beauty, words and sentences flee.
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Such is the site of Camp Raccoon—the boys’ training school of Chattanooga—containing some 300 acres belonging to the Chattanooga council of the Boy Scouts of America. It is where your boy has and will enjoy the thrill of outdoor life and training so necessary for his physical, mental and spiritual development. On the table to the left stand the mess hall for the Scouts, the campfire cabin, where ghosts walk in the stillness of the night after the storytelling is over, and the many tents where boys live the long-cherished lives of primitive man. Just below the infant cascade that divides the two tables, the little stream has been dammed and here is the cool artificial lake, and it is here that your boy is tought [sic] by Camp Director Will Redd the art of swimming before he is permitted to go to the swimming hold in the Tennessee river below. It is here that the boys just before breakfast are permitted to take a cool plunge which puts the pep underneath their skins for the day. Up the hill to the right stands the cabin of Camp Warden Daddy Brooks, who is always on the job twelve months in the year, looking after the property, and in camping season giving advice and hints to the boys as to the things to heed that their sojourn in the mountain may be a success. Further up we follow the trail and if we carry a pail of water, our patch leads us on top of the table, where is situated the officers’ camp—the cozy cottages of Scout Executive Roy Bachman and the director of camp activities, Geo. A. Gay. The view from the officers’ headquarters is wonderful, and few scenes in America can excel it, because you look squarely into the face of the royal canyon of the Tennessee river. Words become as elusive as a family of young quail and as slippery as an eel in the hand when the mind tries to capture words in the English language to adequately describe the natural beauties of Camp Raccoon and its wonderful surroundings. At no place in America has nature provided a more ideal site for a Boy Scout camp than she has here. The rocks, the waters, the trees, the flowers, the insects and the stars—all of nature’s children—are here in one happy colony to lead the boy into study that can only influence him to become the highest type of an American citizen
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I have never found a more attentive crowd and the boy stake their work seriously, which means that these lessons leave an indelible stamp upon their characters. On a single practical nature hike taken at 5 o’clock in the morning through the mountains, I never found a single boy but what returned to camp with his full number of birds, shrubs, blooming flowers or trees identified and with knowledge and observation that enabled him to sufficiently describe them on examination. No one can stand by and observe the deep sincerity that prevails in camp at the flag exercises without coming away feeling inspired and impressed by the [boys’] deep reverence for their country’s flag. The director of camp activities each morning inspects the patrol for cleanliness, etc., and they are graded accordingly. At the conclusion of the inspection the patrol which has made the best grade is presented with a first trophy—the skeleton of a horsehead. There is always a keen contest for this trophy which when won is prominently suspended with pride over the tent of the winners. But woe unto the patrol which makes the lowest grade—for theirs is the booby trophy which is also a skeleton of a horsehead with that part of the skull missing which protected the brains! I think these unique trophies are original with Camp Raccoon. A more orderly crowd of boys I have never observed anywhere. Order is the camp’s first law.
One week in June 1920, Camp Raccon had forty (40) Scouts in camp. They came in on the steamboat James N. Trigg. The roster: Carl Carson, Clarence Williams, Robert Sims, Percy King, Evert Aucott, Gabriel Dubois, William Everton, Charles Byrne, Robert Morgan, Oliver McKechan, James Johnson, Harmon Biac(?), James Williams, James Hamontree, Hubert Trippe, Fred Prather, Carter Parham, Dick Price, Clyde Weatherford, John O'Brian, Ralph Weatherford, Bob Alexander, Edward T. Burns, Deakem Felton, Edward Hays, Martin Reynolds, Charles Hughes, Ralph Brensler(?), Bartley Price, Charles Winter, Roy Long, Howard McCall, Jr., Clarence Schroyer, Jr., John Poindexter, Joe Haskel, Fred Thomas, Melvin Baldwin.
In July 1920, Walter Cline and two of his assistants went out to Camp Raccoon and took moving pictures of the camp. The name of the picture will be "A Hike Through the Mountains With the Boy Scouts." It includes scenes of the scouts with their hiking outfits, morning dip in the Tennessee river pan, camp fire meeting, taps, reveille, and many other scenes from camp. The picture is gotten up for the "Fox Weekly."
The 1920 summer camp season ended on Tuesday, July 20 having served 219 boys.
In August 1920, thirty-five area businessmen attended a weekend camp at Camp Raccoon. Scout Executive Roy Bachman assigned them to patrols under the following leaders: Crows: Prof. J.W. Edwards. Owls: W.H. Sears. Wildcats: C.H. Winder. Peacocks: Fred Ferger. The camp suffered from terrible rain. The owls received the first trophy: The skull of the horsehead that died possessing all of his mental faculties. The booby trophy was also presented (with no skeleton where the brains would have been). Roster of participants: Morgan Ferrell, J.P. McCallie, Clarence Sutton, R.M. Liner, E.L. Ludrug, C.O. Docker, J.W. Edwards, A.D. Catlin, Robert S. Walker, W.H. Sears, Bob Sears, M.F. Edwards, A.W. Taber, C.P. Wright, John Baumgartner, C.H. Winder, F.B. Englehart, O.U. Dykes, B.S. Annis, George W. Hountz, R.I Brown, G. Graham Owens, H.F. Wenning, J. Fred Ferger, Wirth F. Ferger, D.T. Jones, R.G. Patterson, J.F. Finlay, C.L. Peacock, Randolph H. Willard, B.E. Loveman, Roy Bachman, J.B. Green.
April 8, 1920 - Scouting Magazine
May 17, 1920 - Scouts Serve Chicken for Kiwanis Club
May 21, 1920 - Pleads for Boy Scouts